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EARTHQUAKE MONITORING AND SENSING IN NIGERIA

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:89
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Geophysics Project Topics & Materials)
ABSTRACT
This study reviews earthquake monitoring and sensing in Nigeria. The techniques used to monitor earthquakes include seismic, Global position system (GPS) and remote sensing
methods. For now there is no scientific method of predicting earthquakes, but
seismologists depend on the anomalous animal behaviour, radon emissions,
trends, creep fault, drop/rise in the water level and anomalous plant behaviour
for earthquake prediction. The study also revealed that Nigeria is not seismically
free from earthquakes as people believed since minor tremors occurred in the
past. Hence there is a possibility of major earthquake in the future.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT--      --      --      --      --      --      --      --      v

TABLE OF CONTENTS --      --      --      --      --      --      vi

LIST OF TABLES --      --      --      --      --      --      --      viii

LISTOF FIGURE         --      --      --      --      --      --      --      ix     


 CHAPTER ONE
 INTRODUCTION

1.1       Introduction       --      --      --      --      --      --      1
1.2    Global Seismicity         --      --      --      --      --      4
1.3    Geological /Tectonic Setting of Nigeria  --      --      11
1.4    Aims and Objective of the Study   --      --      --      13
1.5       Significance of the Study     -       --      --      --      14    
 
CHAPTER TWO
 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    Earthquake in Nigeria --      --      --      --      --      16
2.2    Probable Causes of Nigeria earthquake Tremors     22
2.2.1 Regional Stress  --      --      --      --      --      --      23
2.2.2 Zones of Weakness     --      --      --      --      --      24
2.2.3 Stress transfer from Plate Boundaries   --      --      26
2.3    Theory of Seismic Waves     --      --      --      --      27
2.4    Types of Seismic Waves      --      --      --      --      27
2.4.1 Body waves      --      --      --      --      --      --      27
2.4.2 Surface Waves   --      --      --      --      --      --      30
2.5    Source of generation of seismic waves          --      --      32
2.6    Earthquake Intensity   --      --      --      --      --      34
2.6.1 The Rossi –Forel Scale --      --      --      --      --      34
2.6.2 Mercalli Scale     --      --      --      --      --      --      37
2.6.3Modified Mercalli Scale --      --      --      --      --      39
2.6.4 Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik Scale       --      --      --      40
2.6.5 European Macroseismic Scale       --      --      --      41
2.7   Earthquake Damage   --      --      --      --      --      44
2.8   Types of Earthquake Magnitude   --      --      --      50


CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHOD
3.1    Instrumentation  --      --      --      --      --      --     
3.2    Earthquake Monitoring network in Nigeria     --      57
3.3    Monitoring Techniques                --      --      --      --      59
3.3.1 Seismic Method  --      --      --      --      --      --      60
3.3.1.1Seismic Reflection     --      --      --      --      --      60
3.3.2 Global positioning System (GPS) Method               --      61
3.3.3 Remote Sensing Method      --      --      --      --      63


CHAPTER FOUR
EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION
4.1    Earthquake Prediction         --      --      --      --      --      65
4.2.   Anomalous Animal Behavior --      --      --      --      67
4.2.1 Radon Emissions --      --      --      --      --      --      71
4.2.2 Trends      --      --      --      --      --      --      --      72
4.3.   How Creep Fault can be used to Predict Earthquake       74
4.4.   Drop/Rise in the Water level of a well and  Earthquake Prediction       --      --      --      76
4.5.   Abnormal Plant Behavior      --      --      --      --      78 


CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1.   Summary   --      --      --      --      --      --      --      79
5.2.   Conclusion --      --      --      --      --      --      --      81
5.3.   Recommendations      --     --     --     --     --     82
        Reference
 
LIST OF TABLES
Table  1.    Showing Earth Tremors in Nigeria.        --      --      18
Table  2.   List of historical earthquake that occurred and tremors that were felt in Nigeria --  --     
Tables 3.   Shows Modified Mercalli scale intensities that are typically observed a location near the epicenter of the earthquake.   --      40
Table  4.    Violent earthquakes often cause the structures to collapse, burying
people underneath.  -- 46
EARTHQUAKE MONITORING AND SENSING IN NIGERIA

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Details

Type Project
Department Geophysics
Project ID GPH0007
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 89 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Geophysics
    Project ID GPH0007
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 89 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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