Background to the Study
AIDS is Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a disease caused by the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The illness interferes with the immune system and makes victims vulnerable to opportunistic infections that exploit clients’ immunosuppressant statuses (CDC, 2011). HIV infection affects the immune system. The immune system is the body's defense against infections by microorganisms (such as very small bacteria or viruses) that get past the skin and mucous membranes and cause disease. The immune system produces special cells called antibodies to fight off or kill these microorganisms. A special weakness of the immune system is called an immunodeficiency. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects, and eventually destroys, special cells in the immune system called lymphocytes and monocytes (UNAIDS/WHO, 2015).
Global HIV statistics indicated that; 24.5 million [21.6 million–25.5 million] people were accessing antiretroviral therapy at the end of 2019, 37.9 million [32.7 million–44.0 million] people globally were living with HIV, 1.7 million [1.4 million–2.3 million] people became newly infected with HIV, 770 000 [570 000–1.1 million] people died from AIDS-related illnesses , 74.9 million [58.3 million–98.1 million] people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic and 32.0 million [23.6 million–43.8 million] people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic (UNAIDS, 2019). According to UNAIDS, the burden of the HIV epidemic vary considerably between countries and regions with Sub-Saharan Africa being the most severely affected region and accounting for nearly 71% of the people living with HIV worldwide (UNAIDS,2013). The HIV prevalence rate in most Sub-Saharan African countries is higher than the global average of 0.8%. In Nigeria, youth and young adults in are particularly vulnerable to HIV. Although the HIV prevalence is much lower in than in the other African countries such as South African and Zambia (UNAIDS,2013).MEDICATION ADHERENCE TO ANTI-RETROVIRAL THERAPY AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ATTENDING COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL AND RESEARCH CENTRE