+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE WATER USING TITANIUM DIOXIDE AS PHOTOCATALYST

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:115
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Chemical Engineering Project Topics & Materials)

ABSTRACT

The potential advantage and application of the photocatalytic process using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst to treat industrial waste water in UV irradiation has been reported. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of photocatalytic degradation using TiO2 in treating pharmaceutical waste water.

Wastewater was collected from the homogenous tank of effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a Pharmaceutical company. The raw sample was tested and the COD, BOD and pH were found to be 120mg/L, 82.4mg/L and 6.09 respectively. The photocatalyst was then added to the waste water and the mixture was placed in the photocatalytic reactor with UV irradiation. The initial waste water concentration, catalyst dosage, agitation speed, circulation flow rate, UV light intensity and the irradiation time were all varied to observe their effect on the rate of degradation. Thereafter samples from the photocatalytic reactor for each batch experimental study were analysed to know final COD.

The result indicated that a percentage degradation of  100% was achieved when the waste water concentration was 50ml/l, catalyst dosage of 0.75g/l, agitation speed of 900rpm, circulation flow rate 120litres/min, UV intensity of 1000watts and irradiation time of 120minutes being the values of optimum process variables respectively. Graphical plots of the equilibrium data using MS-Excel revealed that the pseudo-second order kinetics best described the kinetics of the process.

Table of Contents

                                                                                           Page

COVER PAGE……………………………………………………………………………..i

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………….ii

CERTIFICATION………………………………………………………………………….iii

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………..v

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………………viii

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………..xii

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………………xiii

LIST OF SYMBOLS………………………………………………………………………xviii

CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………………...1

1.0 INTRODUCTION……………….…………………………………………………………1

1.1     Background of Study ………………………………………………………………1

1.2     Aim and Objectives…….…………………………………………………………..4

1.3     Scope of the Study……..………………………………………………………..….4

1.4     Relevance of the Study……………………………………………………………..4

CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………6

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………...........................................................6

2.1 Problems Associated With Industrial Waste Water……………………………….....6

2.2 Classifications of Waste Water………………………………………………………8

       2.2.1 Domestic waste water……………………………………………………………8

       2.2.2 Surface Runoff…………………………………………………………………...8

       2.2.3 Industrial Waste water…………………………………………………………...9

2.3 Physical Characteristics of Wastewater………………………………………………9

2.3.1 Temperature…………………….………………………………………………..9

2.3.2 Color…………………………………………………………...............................9

2.3.3 Odor…………………………………………………………...............................10

2.3.4 Solids…………………………………………………………..............................11

2.4 Chemical Characteristics of Wastewater………………………………………………13

2.4.1 pH…………………………………………………………....................................13

2.4.2 Dissolved Oxygen …………………………………………………………..........14

2.4.3 Nutrients ………………………………………………………….........................14

2.5 Biological Characteristics of Wastewater………………………………………………15

2.5.1 Bacteria …………………………………………………………...........................15

2.5.2 Viruses …………………………………………………………............................15

2.5.3 Parasites ...………………………………………………………...........................15

2.5.4 Molds …………………………………………………………..............................16

2.5.5 Yeasts ………………………………………………………….............................16

2.6 Pharmaceutical Wastewater …………………………………………………………...16

2.7 Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Pharmaceuticals………………………..18

2.8 Conventional Treatment Technology ………………………………………………….20

2.8.1 Treatment of Industrial Wastewater……………………………………………….21

2.9 Advanced Oxidation Processes ………………………………………………………..24

2.9.1 UV-Based Processes ………………………………………………………….......25

2.9.2 UV/O3 Process …………………………………………………………................25

2.9.3 UV/O3/H2O2 Process …………………………………………………………......26

2.9.4 Fe3+/UV-VIS Process…………………………………………………………......27

2.9.5 UV/TiO2 (Heterogeneous photocatalysis) ………………………………………...27

2.9.6 H2O2-Based Processes …………………………………………………………....28

2.10 Photocatalysis ………………………………………………………….......................31

2.10.1 History of Photocatalysis ………………………………………………………..32

2.10.2 Principle of Photocatalysis ………………………………………………………33

2.10.3 TiO2 as a photocatalyst …………………………………………………………...36

2.11 Photo Catalysis Oxidation of Water Borne Organic Pollutants………………………...37

2.12 Application of Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs)…………………………………..37

2.13 Light Sources…………………………………………………………...........................38

2.14 Photocatalytic Degradation ………………………………………………………….....39

2.15 Photocatalytic Treatment of Industrial Waste Water…………………………………...41

2.16 Photocatalytic Degradation of Pharmaceutical Effluent ……………………………….46

CHAPTER THREE………………………………………’’……………….............................49

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS ……………………………………………………........49

3.1 Materials …………………………………………………………..................................49

3.1.1 Pharmaceutical Waste Water ……………………………………………………….49

3.1.2 Reagents and Chemicals Used ……………………………………………………...49

3.2 Instrument Used …………………………………………………………......................50

3.2.1 Multi Lamp UV Flow Thru Photochemical Reactor ……………………………...50

3.2.2 Magnetic Stirrer …………………………………………………………..............50

3.3 Methods and Analysis …………………………………………………………............51

3.3.1 Collection and Storage of Wastewater Sample ……………………………...……51

3.3.2 pH Estimation ………………………………………………………….................51

3.3.3 Estimation of COD…………………………………………………………..........53

3.3.4 Estimation of BOD ………………………………………………………….........55

3.4 Photocatalytic Treatment and Degradation of Pharmaceutical Effluent ………………56

3.4.1 Investigating the Effect of Concentration of TiO2 on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater    …………………………………………………57

3.4.2 Investigating the Effect of Agitation Speed on the Photocatalytic Treatment  of  Pharmaceutical Wastewater………………………………………………………57

3.4.3 Investigating the Effect of flowrate on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waster …………………………………………………………...58

3.4.4 Investigating the Effect of UV Intensity of the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater ……………………………………………………..58

3.4.5 Investigating the Effect of Time on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Wastewater ………………………………………………………….....................59

CHAPTER FOUR ….……….………………………………………………………...............60

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION….…………………………………………………..........60

4.1 Characteristics of Wastewater …………………………………………………………60

4.2 Effect of Initial waste water on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaeceutical Waste Water…………………………………………………………....................................60

4.3 Effect of Catalyst Dosage on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaeceutical Waste Water…………………………………………………………....................................60

4.4 Effect of Agitation Speed on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste Water …………………………………………………………...................................63

4.5 Effect of Flow Rate on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste Water 65

4.7 Effect of UV Intensity on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste Water………………………………………………………….....................................67

4.7 Effect of Exposure Time on the Photocatalytic Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste Water …………………………………………………………....................................69

4.8 Kinetic Models…………………………………………………………........................71


Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Chemical Engineering
Project ID CNG0269
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 115 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Chemical Engineering
    Project ID CNG0269
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 115 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are cosmetics, drugs, or other consumer products used to cleanse, beautify, or treat humans or animals; including prescriptions and over the counter drugs, soaps, fragrances, solvents, non-ionic and anionic surfactants, bleaches, dyes, and sunscreen agents. They are termed Contaminants of... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Biological treatment of wastewater from Wupa Wastewater Treatment Plant, Abuja was investigated. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet and effluent point (before and after the ultra violet radiation unit) of the treatment plant. The physicochemical parameters; temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total... Continue Reading
    TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………………………………………………………..………ii LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….……….v LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………vi... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Agriculture in the early days was generally considered too small an industry to have significant impact on the environment. The remarkable growth of the agriculture industry in many countries over the past decades has increased adverse impact on the environment. (Acketors, 2014). The cultivation of organisms in ponds (Tincker, 2012),... Continue Reading
    This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals in oil field produced water from Niger Delta, before and after treatment with locally sourced agricultural wastes. Two produced water samples were investigated for different metal ions such as; Lead, Nickel, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Chromium, Zinc, Manganese, Calcium, Arsenic,... Continue Reading
    This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals in oil field produced water from Niger Delta, before and after treatment with locally sourced agricultural wastes. Two produced water samples were investigated for different metal ions such as; Lead, Nickel, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Chromium, Zinc, Manganese, Calcium, Arsenic,... Continue Reading
    Cultivation of microalgae on municipal waste water Extraction of the oil from the algae cells. Production of biodiesel from the algae oil. Characterization of the biodiesel produced. Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 Statement of Problem 1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study 1.4 Significance of Study 1.5 Scope of Study Chapter 2 Literature... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plant and animals must have water to survive. If there is no water there would be no life on earth. Disease causing germs and chemicals find their way into water supplies when this happens, the water becomes polluted. The principal objective of this research work is to asses the... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The microbiological and organic pollutants characteristics of Owena dam in Ifedore local government area of Ondo-state, Nigeria was carried out, nine water samples were collected from three different parts of the downstream side, which include; around the waste disposal site, community settlement and farm environment. The microorganisms... Continue Reading
    (A CASE STUDY OF EKULU RIVER, ENUGU) Abstract The microbiological and organic pollutants characteristics of umuosoko stream in ikwuano local government area, Enugu state, Nigeria were carried out. Twenty water samples were collected from four different... Continue Reading