Agricultural is one of the most important sectors of our country’s economy. Enugu state is no exception. Enugu state, characterized by low farm incomes, primitive farming techniques which lower the level of production, and low level of capacity to satisfy the food and fiber need of the nation. Infant agricultural is in a part-type pf peascont agricultural which has been mentioned by many writers as caught in a vicious circle of property low income resulting to poor savings and little investment, because technology is poor, out put is always low and income yield is low. Generally agriculture in Nigeria is caught as a low level equilibrium trap.
The nature of technology is use always affects the rate of return; i.e. the rate of return cannot rise because of poor technology in use. This also as a result of poor financing, such agriculture has been described as efficient but poor. In order to alleviate the numerous problems being encountered by farmers and the economics loss suffered both individual farmers and government in the international and local trade transactions, then government decided to finance most of the agricultural projects limited by individual farmers, co-operatives and institution.
Prior to 1976, the attention paid to agriculture by successive government was not anything to write home about. Farmers were not earned for pushed to the background and they weren’t introduced into the use of modern scientific method of farming which would have help them a lot to boost agricultural production. It was during the obasanjo leadership that alteration was beginning to be given to agriculture with the introduction of operation feed the nation (OFN). Then the idea was that of the bulk of producing food for the nation was left with the farmers alone, we might not achieve best result but the idea behind (OFN) was that all Nigerian should join hands together and produce for our ourselves and the nation in general. Ever since then, successive government have followed with different programs all aiming developing products.
The evidence is that the establishment of Nigeria agricultural and co-operatives bank ( NACB) ltd which is an apex development financial institutions set up to external agricultural credit to the agricultural and agro-alhed sectors of the Nigeria economy, this government has shown a great concern in this wise. This is carried out through the provision of loans to liability companies, state and federal government agencies.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter deals with review of related literature. The literature review is done under the following headings
Agriculture in this country started as far back as the origin has been a gradual and continous one, since the many stages of agricultural development took place are still taking force in Nigeria, the stages can be classified into three
1. Pre- colonial stage –which can further be divided into:
a. Stone age: at this period being were concerned with only food and shelter. They crude method of agriculture and for that not much important where attached to agriculture. Some crops were allowed to wasted away and some will eaten raw such crops were orange , banana, coca, and a lot of others.there will nothing like harvesting talk more of preservation.
Medieral age: during this time there was some improvements compare to the Stone Age period.
People have started in knowing important of agriculture they kill animals they preserve their skill for making shoes and the other farming equipment will locally produced. Farming at this stage was still primitive but it was claimed that some remarkable improvement were made compare Stone Age 11. Colonial stage: before the advent of modern age when Nigeria was in a pre-colonial its affairs was being directed by Nigeria themselves through things later changed when the British penetrated into Nigeria through Lagos and colonized her under the British colony. While ruler’s arrival in the country brought some development into Nigeria in respect agricultural due to their advance acknowledge of agriculture and many agricultural products, served as inputs to majority of their economic activities better and improved method of farming was introduced in Nigeria.
At that time coca, grant nut rubber, palm karnnel etc. where produced in large quantities and exports to foreign countries
111. post independences stage: Nigeria got their independence in 1st October 1960, colonial matters era became over this was when the prime minister tafawa belawa at the central level and premier as they need lead the government in three region
Nigeria has been witnessing some agricultural development in a very low space before the advent of independence but after that a lot improvements were made.
Agriculture was recognized as the economic mainstay of Nigerian providing all food, raw materials and foreign exchange earnings the import needs of our country by first government efforts were made to encourage the production of coca, palm oil, rubber, cotton, groundnuts etc. In large quantities and cattle rearing activities were encouraged at that time, agricultural production represented about 20% of the country total export earnings.
Nigeria was towards evidenced by pyramids of groundnut mounted in the northern part of the country then, as well as large acres of palm trees and rubber trees, plantain which could be found in mid-western and eastern state of Nigeria respectively. This country was able to stand to stand very well during those periods with respect to her balance of payment and balance of trade in a reasonable position. The concern for the government for agriculture was very serious and can be classified as base for agricultural development in Nigeria
I. Silos were provided by the government although not sufficient number but helped the farmers in preserving their agricultural product and they reduce wastage thereby increasing their wealth.
II. Roads were constructed in some areas, for agricultural output form the farms to different parts of the country where there needed.
III. Some agricultural officers will appointed by government who moves about counseling the farmers on what to plant and how to their farming.
IV. Various boards were established at this time they are:
a. The Nigeria coca boards
b. The Nigeria palm produce board
c. The Nigeria cotton board
d. The marketing board.
Military government in 1966, under the leadership of late Gen, Aguiyi Ironsi came in as a result of the end of first republic during this regime, there was no record of achievement because they did not stay long. Another regime headed by the formal head of state general yakube Gowon (ltd) petroleum crude oil was discovered in Nigeria and as a consequence of oil boom, little or no attention was given to agriculture which has been the mainstay of the country in the past.
During the regime of late General Murtala Mohammed and Gen. Olesegun obasanjo (itu) in 1976, effect of deficiency and agricultural development the country economy were becoming glaring. Agricultural product exported to outside countries. The objective of this programme was to encourage agricultural in a large scale and mobilize in general public in getting involved in agricultural activities by cultivating available land with their environment in order to provide food in abundance for the nation. These programs implemented, can evidenced by its introduced in some secondary school where by agricultural students were compelled to cultivate farm land and carryout plantation up which they were assessed during their practical examinations. Also available were have using their back yard and every available land for small scale faming and this brought about development on the previous agricultural position of the economy. The second republic with Alhaji shehu shagari as the chief executive president recognized adverse effect of the short fall in agriculture and join past governmet in derising a good method of developing and encourage agriculture in Nigeria. This regime introduced another program called the green revolution. The objectives towards this program was to produce food in large quantities to feed the nation and develop agriculture to the position of generating raw materials and earn sufficient income capable of improving our foreign reserves. To achieve this, government embarked.
Importation of fertilizers.
Scale of seedling trees to farmers
Leasing out agricultural equipment to farmers by a body –establishment by the government officials of ministry of agriculture, sent to educate farms on how to effectively and profitable carry out their agricultural activities. Seminars and workships were organized periodically serving as a forum for farmers education and also loans were granted to small and large scale farmers so as to minimize financial problems of farmers and also organized some other incentives in order to boast agricultural production. In its efforts to establish develop agricultural production in the country, government state of the federal.
The above mentioned agricultural program were in existence before the advent of buhari / idiagbon regime which did stay long thereby adding to further agricultural sit back in country. However, the take over of government by present regime under the leadership of Gen. ibrahim babangada has showing concern over the dividing economy and has identified lack of government in the areae of agriculture as one the major causes of economics problem in this country.
For this interest and effort for agricultural developing in the country, the regime introduced various programmes such as mass mobilization for slef reliance and economic reconstruction ( MAMSER) which is mobilizing the cictzen to go into agriculture 30th large and small scale, encourage people to use any available kind space to cultivate and make plantation so as to geneate income both internally and as well as to earn foreign resources and also to provideraw material for some of our industries, another program is the structured adjustment program (SAP) which is also the badly of babangida regime with similar objectives of restructing the economy and agricultural development.
Form the information above, it could be understood the agricultural development had a gradual process that started way back in the primitive to this modern society.