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Electrolyte Content of Some Soft Drinks

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:52
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Bio-Chemistry Project Topics & Materials)

Abstract

Soft drinks are consumed daily in Nigeria due to their characteristic taste, palatability, affordability and thirst quenching potential. This study quantifies the amount of electrolytes of Biochemical significance in selected soft drinks sold in Port Harcourt and their pH values. The samples included six frequently consumed soft drinks; (Coke, Sprite, Fayrouz, Mountain-Dew, Fanta and Pepsi). The results showed that the samples contain relatively high amount of Sodium(Na+) ranging from 88mmol/l to 41mmol/l with  a mean of 59.83mmol/l, Potassium(K+) was relatively low in the samples with values ranging from 1.9mmol/l to 0.01mmol/l with a mean of 0.48mmol/l, Calcium(Ca2+) was relatively low in the samples with values ranging from 1.5mmol/l to 0.5mmol/l with a mean of 0.88mmol/l, Magnesium(Mg2+) was relatively very low in the samples with values ranging from 0.40mmol/l to 0.01mmol/l with a mean of 0.11mmol/l, Bicarbonate(HCO32-) concentration was low in the samples with values ranging from 0.04mmol/l to 0.01mmol/l  with a mean of 0.025mmol/l, Chloride (Cl-) was relatively high in the samples with values ranging from 24.50mmol/l to 2.50mmol/l with a mean of 12.23mmol/l, Phosphate (HPO42-) content of the drinks were relatively moderate with values ranging from 6.20mmol/l to 0.11mmol/l with a mean of 2.25. The pH of the samples showed they were acidic with pH ranging from 4.0 to 2.40 with a mean of 3.4. The results show that soft drinks are good sources of electrolytes. 

Table of Content

Title Page………………………………………………………………………...i
Certification……………………………………………………………………..ii
Dedication………………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………...iv
Abstract………………………………………………………………………….v
Table of Content………………………………………………………………..vi
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………...x
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………x
CHAPTER ONE
 Introduction/Literature Review……………………………………………..1
1.1 Electrolyte…………………………………………………………………...1
1.1.1 Physiological Importance…………………………………………………2
1.1.2 Measurement………………………………………………………………3
1.1.3 Rehydration………………………………………………………………..4
1.2.1 Sodium Ion (Na+)...………………………………………………………..4
1.2.1.1 Biological Role………………………………………………………….5
1.2.2 Potassium Ion (K+)……………………...…………………………………6
1.2.2.1 Biological Role………………………………………………………….6
1.2.2.2 Biochemical Function…………………………………………………...6
1.2.2.3 Homeostasis……………………………………………………………..7
1.2.2.4 Plasma Levels…………………………………………………………...7
1.2.2.5 Control Mechanisms…………………………………………………….8
1.2.2.6 Renal Filtration, Reabsorption, and Excretion…………………………10
1.2.2.7 Detection by Taste Buds……………………………………………….11
1.2.2.8 Adequate Intake………………………………………………………..12
1.2.2.9 Optimal Intake…………………………………………………………12 
1.2.2.10 Deficient Intake……………………………………………………….12
Calcium Ion (Ca2+)………………...……………………………………12
1.2.3.1 Biological Role………………………………………………………...13
1.2.3.2 Dietary Supplements…………………………………………………...14
1.2.3.3 Bone Health……………………………………………………………16 
1.2.3.4 Cardiovascular Impact…………………………………………………16
1.2.3.5 Cancer………………………………………………………………….17
1.2.3.6 Hazards and Toxicity…………………………………………………..17
Magnesium Ion (Mg2+)………………………………………………….18
1.2.4.1 Mechanism of Action…………………………………………………..19
1.2.4.2 Dietary Sources, Recommended Intake, and Supplementation………..19
1.2.4.3 Metabolism…………………………………………………………….20 
1.2.4.4 Detection in Serum and Plasma………………………………………..20
1.2.4.5 Deficiency……………………………………………………………...21 
1.2.4.6 Therapy………………………………………………………………...21
1.2.4.7 Overdose……………………………………………………………….22
1.2.5 Chloride Ion (Cl-)………………………………………………………...23
1.2.5.1 biological role………………………………………………………….23
1.2.5.2 Food Sources…………………………………………………………...23
1.2.5.3 Side Effects…………………………………………………………….23
1.2.6 Hydrogen Phosphate Ion (HPO24-)..……………………………………...24
1.2.6.1 In Soft Drinks…………………………………………………………..25
1.2.7 Carbonate Ion (HCO3-)…………………………………………………..27
1.3 pH…………………………………………………………………………..28
1.3.1 pH Indicators……………………………………………………………..28
1.4 Soft Drinks…………………………………………………………………30
1.4.1 Soft Drink Production……………………………………………………31
1.4.2 Ingredient Quality………………………………………………………..31
1.5 Health Issues for Overconsumption of Soft Drinks………………………..32
1.5.1 Obesity and Weight-Related Diseases…………………………………...32
1.5.2 Dental Decay……………………………………………………………..34
1.5.3 Hypokalemia……………………………………………………………..34 
1.5.4 Soft Drinks Related to Bone Density and Bone Loss……………………34 
1.5.5 Diabetes Mellitus………………………………………………………...35 
1.5.6 Signs and Symptoms……………………………………………………..36
1.5.7  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus_type_2" \o "Diabetes mellitus type 2" Diabetes Mellitus Type 2………………………………………………...37
1.5.8  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_management" \o "Diabetes management" Diabetes Management……………………………………………………38
1.6 Aim of the Research……………………………………………………….39

1.7 Objective…………………………………………………………………...39
CHAPTER TWO
Materials and Methods……………………………………………………..40

2.1 Materials/Apparatus………………………………………………………..40
2.2 Collection of Samples……………………………………………………...41 
2.3 Method for Electrolyte Analysis…………………………………………...41
2.4 Method for pH Analysis of the Carbonated Drinks………………………..42
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Results.……………………………………………………………………..43
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Discussion and Conclusion………………………………………………...45
4.1 Recommendation…………………………………………………………..46
References……………………………………………………………………...47


















LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1. Action of Na+-K+ pump…………………………………..………………9
Fig 2. 500mg Calcium supplements made from  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_carbonate" \o "Calcium carbonate" Calcium Carbonate……………….14
Fig 3. Examples of food sources of magnesium……………………………….19
Fig 4. Buffering activities of Bicarbonate in the body……………………………………..27
Fig 5. Chart showing the variation of colour of universal indicator paper with pH………………………………………………………………………………28
Fig 6. A glass of  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cola" \o "Cola" cola served with  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ice_cube" \o "Ice cube" ice cubes…………………………………...30
Fig 7. Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes………………..36
LIST OF  TABLES
Table1.0 WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria…………………………………....38
Table 3.0 Electrolytes concentrations in mmol/l………………………………43
Table 3.1 Electrolyte Concentrations in mg/dl………………………………...43
Table 3.2 pH of the Soft Drinks and Description……………………………...44
 

Electrolyte Content of Some Soft Drinks

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Details

Type Project
Department Bio-Chemistry
Project ID BCH0105
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
No of Pages 52 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Bio-Chemistry
    Project ID BCH0105
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    No of Pages 52 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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