(Chemical Engineering)



The candle mould has twenty four (24) holes which could produce twenty four (24) quality candle sticks

Aluminum, a non ferrous metal was used as the construction material for the mould the type of casting technique used was green sand mould method.

In the process of moulding the pattern was placed in the flask which contained the green sand.  The flask was turned upside down and the reverse side of the pattern was formed.  This part is called the positive part, the other part of the pattern formed on the moist sand is called the negative part, the two parts were then joint together to form the cope and the drag.

A gate or opening was provided for the pouring of the molten aluminum into the mould.  Gases and fumes were able to escape through the vents.

It was ensured that the molten aluminum filled all parts of the mould with the least delay.  All part of the candle mould  were machined after casting to get a perfect exterior and interior surface finish.

The fabrication  of the   candle mould cost seven thousand (N7,000) naira for both material and labour.



1.0              Introduction


2.0              Literature review

2.1       Theory of casting processes in the construction of the candle mould

2.2              Properties of sand mould


3.0              Materials of fabrication

3.1       Selection of aluminum as a construction raw material

3.2              Treatment of aluminum prior to casting.

3.3              Fabrication test


4.0              Plug preparation

4.1       Fabrication procedure

4.2              Materials use for the contraction of candle mould

4.3              Purification of aluminum

4.4              Constructions method

4.5              Machining operation

4.6              Safety precaution


5.0              Method of operation

5.1       Quality control measures

5.2              Care and maintenance of the candle mould


6.0              Cost analysis


7.0              Conclusion

7.1       Recommendation

Appendix, References


Casting as a method of fabrication is defined ceramics into a fire proof container or mould to solidify with the purpose of forming a desired shape.  If they are permitted to retain this shape or are reshaped by machining operations only, the objects are called casting.  If the object formed are subjected to subsequent deformation such as rolling forging, the original shape are called ingots.

Casting is one  of the oldest fabrication of machine parts, moulds, fitting, equipment etc

There are various methods of casting moulds machine parts and fitting. These include sand mould casting which makes use of sand mould, permanent or metal mould casting which uses metallic mould and ceramics mould casting which uses ceramic mould. Each moulding method has certain inherent advantages and limitation.  The choice of a particular moulding method depends on factors such as size and shape of castings, dimensional accuracy, surface finish metallurgical properties, production, quantities and cost.


The mould used for casting may be made of metals sand or ceramics.  Metallic mould are usually permanent mould used where mass production of identical objects are desired such as casting of steel ingots, in cast iron mould, and casting of automobile piston.  Sand mould and ceramics mould are usually temporary moulds.

Sand mould are made of sand moistened    with a binder such as molasses or clay (French sand) and used in this moist condition in which case it is called a green sand mould or it may be baked to dryness and therefore referred to as dry sand mould.

Sand mould casting is the most variable all the forming processes, and provided the greatest freedom of design in terms of shape, size and product quality.  Moreover, sand mould casting is relatively cheap, easily available and can easily be undertaken by small scale production of machine points equipment fitting.

The choice of casting materials depended on such factors as cost, durability, corrosion resistance and metallurgical properties.  The choice of aluminum as the fabrication materials of the candle is due to its relative availability low melting point (6660), high fluidity on melting and corrosion resistance.


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