+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

Adaptive modulation for cognitive radios

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:54
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Electrical Engineering Project Topics & Materials)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………..iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……..………………………………………………………..iv

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS………………………………………………………….…vii

SECTION

1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….…….1

2. DEFINITION OF A COGNITIVE RADIO………………..…….……………4

3. OPERATION OF A COGNITIVE RADIO……………………….…………..6

3.1. STAGES OF OPERATION………………………….………………..6

3.2. THE COGNITION CYCLE………………………………….………..6

3.3. GAME THEORY AND COGNITIVE RADIO……….………………9

3.3.1. Game Theory…............................................................................9

3.3.2. Applying Game Theory to Cognitive Radios….…...……..…...10

4. PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE OF A COGNITIVE RADIO………….…...12

5. SPECTRUM SENSING……………………….……………………………..15

5.1. SPECTRUM SENSING TECHNIQUES………………….…………15

5.1.1. The Matched Filter Method of Signal Detection…....................15

5.1.2. The Radiometric Method of Energy Detection……………......16

5.1.3. The Cyclo-Stationary Feature Detection Method……….….....17

5.2. SPECTRUM SENSING CHALLENGES…….…………………..........18

5.2.1. Interference Temperature Measurement……….…………...….18

5.2.2. Spectrum Sensing in Multi-user Networks…………….………19

vi

5.2.3. Detection Capability……………..…………………..…………19

5.2.4. The Hidden Terminal Problem………………………….……..20

5.3. SPECTRUM MOBILITY…………………………...………………..21

6. ADAPTIVE MODULATION……………………………...…………….…..23

6.1. DOPPLER EFFECT……………………………………...…………..23

6.2. MULTI-PATH PROPAGATION…………………………..………..25

6.2.1. Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Channel………...…26

6.2.2. Rayleigh Fading Channel………………………...…...................26

6.3. ADAPTIVE MODULATION TECHNIQUES…...……….……….27

6.4. ADAPTIVE MODULATION MODEL FOR COGNITIVE

RADIO……………………………………………..………….…...29

6.5. MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR A FADING

CHANNEL…………………………………..………...……………31

6.6. BIT-ERROR RATE EXPRESSIONS….………………...…….........34

6.6.1. BER Expressions for AWGN Channel……………..…………34

6.6.2. BER Expressions for Rayleigh Fading Channel.....………...…36

7. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS……………….…………………………37

7.1. BER PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR AWGN CHANNE..…..37

7.2. BER PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR RAYLEIGH FADING

CHANNEL……………………………………….……………...38

7.3. OPTIMAL MODULATION FORMATS IN ADAPTIVE

MODULATION…………………………………………….…...39

8. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………...43

BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………44

VITA……………………………………………………………………………46

vii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure Page

3.1 The Cognition Cycle…………………..……………………………………..……..8

4.1 Physical Architecture of a Cognitive Radio…………….………………………..13

5.1 Implementation of an Energy Detector………...………………………………...16

5.2 Implementation of a Cyclo-Stationary Feature Detector….……………………..18

5.3 The Hidden Terminal problem…………………………………………………...20

6.1 Illustration of Doppler Effect…………………………………………………….24

6.2 Model of an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel………………...27

6.3 A typical Rayleigh fading envelope at a carrier frequency of 900 MHz

and receiver speed=100km/hr……………………………………………………28

6.4 Basic block diagram of an Adaptive Modulation based Cognitive Radio

system…………………………………………………….………………………30

7.1 BER performance of BPSK, QPSK, square 16-QAM, and square 64-QAM

in AWGN channel………………………………………………………………..37

7.2 BER performance of 4-AM, 8-AM, and 16-AM in AWGN channel…………..…38

7.3 BER performance of BPSK, 4-QAM, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM in

Rayleigh flat fading channel……………………………………………...………..39

7.4 Optimal modulation formats in adaptive modulation for BPSK, QPSK,

16-QAM, and 64-QAM in AWGN channel………………………...……………..40

7.5 Optimal modulation formats in adaptive modulation for 4-AM, 8-AM,

and 16-AM in AWGN channel……….…………………………..……………….42

7.6 Optimal modulation formats in adaptive modulation for BPSK, 4-QAM,

16-QAM, and 64-QAM in flat fading Rayleigh channel………………....….……42

Adaptive modulation for cognitive radios

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Electrical Engineering
Project ID ELE0206
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
No of Pages 54 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Electrical Engineering
    Project ID ELE0206
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    No of Pages 54 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT In our present society, wireless communication has become most prevalent and mobile units (hand held devices /GSM/ Computers) are one of the most common equipments for conveying messages wirelessly. Owing to the fact that most youths in our society today on the average make use of at least one wireless device that communicate with other... Continue Reading
    A CRITIQUE ON PIAGETIAN  THEORIES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT   TABLE OF CONTENTS   TITLE……………………………………………………………...i    CERTIFICATION………………………………………………..ii DEDICATION ………………………………………….………..iii... Continue Reading
    INTRODUCTION La traduction est et a toujours été » une activité indispensable dans les relations humaines à travers l’histoire de l’humanité au niveau national et international. C’est l’une des tâches les plus dignes d’estime du marché d’échange mondial et universel. Pendant longtemps et par tradition, seulement deux places... Continue Reading
    TABLE DE MATIÈRES INTRODUCTION  CHAPITRE  1 :QU’EST-CE QUE LA TRADUCTION LITTÉRAIRE? 1:1      La traduction littéraire et technique 1 :2     Traduction et interprétation CHAPITRE  2 : QUE VEUT DIRE LA MODULATION ? 2:1      Sept  procédés de traduction 2 :2     la modulation 2 :3     Le types de modulation... Continue Reading
    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY From the beginning, parents have been the major persons involved in raising children in every society. That is why the family is recognized as an important agent of socialization. Adekeyi, A. (2002) observes that it is mainly through their efforts and abilities that children are... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The study attempted to investigate the effects of early childhood education on the cognitive development of primary one pupils in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, extensive and relevant literature review was carried out under... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT For many decades, nanotechnology has been developed with cooperation from researchers in several fields of studies including physics, chemistry, biology, material science, engineering, and computer science and it presents a wide range of problems and opportunities not just diverse issues, but issues of different kinds. In this project, we... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The study attempted to investigate the effects of early childhood education on the cognitive development of primary one pupils in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, extensive and relevant literature review was carried out under related sub-headings. The descriptive research survey was used in this study in order... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effects of a 2-week swimming exercise on scopolamine-induced dementia in a mice model. Thirty-two mice, were randomly divided into four groups (8 rats in each). Group A served as control without exercise and received saline only; Group B served as induced control and receive a single dose of scopolamine... Continue Reading
    Abstract CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION 1.    Background to the Study 2.    Statement of Problem 3.    Scope of study 4.    Objectives of Study 5.    Significance of Study 6.    Research Questions 7.    Research Hypothesis 8.    Research Methodology 9.    Sources of Data 1.10 Outline of Chapters  CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW... Continue Reading