This study was undertaken to assess the contributions of teachers’ knowledge of Curriculum Characteristics, value internalization and commitment, perception of adequacy of facilities, equipment and materials, and degree of performance of implementation roles/behaviours to achievements in Junior Secondary Certificate Examination in Home Economics. Effect of state and teachers’ qualification on achievement in the same examination was also assessed.
The study employed ex-post facto research design and a survey strategy. A random sample of one hundred Junior Secondary Schools stratified proportionally by state was SELECTED for the study. An instrument was developed for the study.
THREE hypotheses were postulated for the study. Appropriate statistics were used in analyzing the data. The results of the study were PRESENTED in tables 1,2,3,4 and 5. The paper concluded by prescribing the needed reforms in the policy related to preparation of Home Economics teachers for Junior Secondary Schools.
The most innovative contribution contained in the National policy of Education (1998) to the development and modernization of Nigerian educational system is in the area of secondary education. The policy prescribes a two tier secondary education lasting for a period of six years. A child is required to spend the first THREE years of secondary education in Junior secondary School (JSS) and another THREE years in the Senior Secondary School (SSS) if a student performs well in both continuous assessment (C.A.) and terminal examinations. However, the Junior secondary School Education is pre- vocational and academic. Stressed among the prevocational subjects proposed for Junior Secondary School is Home Economics.
Jacobs (1985:10) enunciated that, the most innovative aspect of Junior Secondary School (JSS) is the area of curricula activities which consist of broad or general education, practical opportunities and development of talents. The National Junior Secondary School Home Economics curriculum for the first THREE years of secondary education in NIGERIA is an example. It is designed to provide learners with basic intellectual and practical educational knowledge relevant to Nigerian society. It is also part of the aim of the curriculum to prepare youth formally for jobs as well (Omoregie, 1984:264). Based on the foregoing information which identify the importance of the Junior Secondary School and the Home Economics Curriculum as useful to students, the investigator considers that attention should be focussed on the academic achievement of the programme recipients which is the focus of this study to ensure that the products perform effectively in the society. A wide range of factors have influence on school achievement at various educational level.
Educators such as Wolson (1991:11) and Laxton (1992:13) have indicated that generally students exposed to a programme of instruction or a new curriculum attain significantly the knowledge that is embodied in the programme or curriculum. An example of a new curriculum is National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum-Concerning the issue of curriculum characteristics Badmus (1993:141) claimed that, if teachers are to implement the National Junior Secondary School Home Economics Curriculum properly, they must know and understand the major distinguishing characteristics of the curriculum they are to implement. A teacher who does not have the knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of a curriculum may find it difficult to plan instructional activities or help students in academic achievement.
Ibeanu (1986:44) from research evidence showed that TEST manipulation such as administration, marking and grading of TESTS affect students’ performance or achievement. These manifest in the inconsistency in marking caused by variety of marking severity. Various markers of the same subject differ greatly in their standards and in the qualities which they regard desirable or undesirable. Similarly, teachers, equipment and facilities are determinants of academic achievement. Agbo (1979:13) and Nwelve et al. (1978:21) reported that lack of qualified staff affected student performance. In their study it was revealed that the higher the qualification of the subject-teacher, the higher the level of performance of the students. Failure to provide these essentials, achievement motivation which is the need to COMPETE, to overcome obstacles and atrive for success may not be encouraged in students. There is the tendency that the students BECOME underachievers. Similarly, Okakuro (2000) affirmed that, students’ attitude affect their performance in account in senior secondary schools. In her study, it was revealed that 67% of the respondents agreed that students’ attitude affect their performance in account in senior secondary schools, while 33% did not agree. This could be as a result of non-provision of students’ needs to encourage learning of account and teachers’ poor methods of teaching.
Awe(2002) revealed through her study that parents’ attitude towards agricultural science has impact on students’ performance in Agricultural Science. She revealed that students whose parents’ attitude towards Agricultural Science is encouraging performed better in the subject compared to students whose parents have non- challant attitude towards the subject. In general the performance of students in this subject depends on the personal interest and parental interest.
Oladele et al. (1993) discovered that, lack of qualified teachers, lack of well equipped library, parental guardian influence attitude of students. Instructional materials and time allocation are another important factors affecting students’ performance in Agricultural science in secondary schools. In the same vein, Ashien (2003) revealed in his study that, lack of interest and lack of qualified teachers and instructional materials are some of the factors affecting students’ performance in senior secondary school Certificate Examination in principles of accounting. This means that, all these factors are important in order to improve the performance of students in accounting. In this light, the study examined critically some factors affecting achievement in Home Economics Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination (JSCE).