The practices of auditing originated from the necessity to impose some system of check upon persons whose business involves to record the receipt and disbursement of money on behalf of theirs. However, due to the crudeness of accounting methods in the early stages of civilization individuals checked accounts for themselves. The impetus given to trade and commerce in the 15th century by the Renanssance resulted to the discovery of a more scientific system of accounting and in 1494 LUCCA PACIOL, an Italian publisher of the principle of Double Entries Book-keeping in Venice. Thus, by this discovery it because possible to record all sort of merchandise transactions involving all matters of accounts and this development resulted to the application of Audit on these records.
The mechanical invention of the Eighteenth centuries which lead to the industrial revolution coupled with increased need for financial assistance to finance ambigions projects explained the emergence of several joint stock companies and corporate under-takings utilizing enormous capital under the management of few individuals. Under these circumstances the advantages to be gained by utilizing the services of professional auditor were apparent to be commercialized publicly, generally to force the operator of these enterprises to account for the results of all transactions under-taking by them, on the company behalf during the period of stewardship.
In order to attest for the emergence of auditing as a profession, it is widely accepted that autonomous expertise and the service ideal are not most distributive attributes of a profession, together with the existence of a systematic body of knowledge and authority recognized by the client or user. All these have been defined for and are true of auditing.
The need for auditing mostly government audit exist in the operations of government and institutions. Based on the above management, burden has become of greater importance because of wider delegation of authority and responsibility.
The need for honest, candid public disclosure exist for federal state and local government expands an increasing scheme of the gross material product and in so doing relied upon the communication of financial data to ensure that the cost it involves are reasonable for regardless of weather the project be a mass transit system or foreign aid programme the financial problems of federal state and local government in recent years is a further reminder that all organisation must be held accountable for proper management of resources entrusted to them if they are changed. Efficient allocation of materials and financial resources necessities that industries, organization enbitus are subjected to goods accounting and reporting since it forms an effective means of assessing capability. Inadequate accurate reporting on the other hand conceal waste and inefficiency and thereby present our economic resources from being allocated in a material manner.
Most of the materials policies, such as developing energy resources, controlling inflation and increasing employment rely directly on qualitative management of economic activities and the communication of these data. Undisputably the whole essence of audit is to ensure accountability and rendering of accounts of stewardship to whom one is responsible. The fundamental tenet of a democratic society holds that government and the authority for applying them have a responsibility to render a full account of their activities. Accountability is inherent in government process and could vividly be understood as the dept of responsibility or explanation one person owes for his action or conduct to a superior officer. It identifies the reasons for which the public resources have been diverted as well as the manner and effort of their application.
Accountability involves expenditure of funds and the placing of legal boud on services delivering. If the job is not done according to specification, the owner has a redress to exercise some sanctions or penalty on such a person or group upon which services is communicated, and responsible for planning and implementing strategies which provides that services. It is this expertise that constitutes the main problem that necessita
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
THE CONCEPT AND NATURE OF AUDITING
GOVERNMENT AUDIT DEPARTMENT
THE CONCEPT OF ACCOUNTABILITY
SUMMARY OF RELATED LITERATURE REVIEWED
AREA OF STUDY
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENT
RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
IMPLICATION OF THE RESEARCH RESULTS
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
te concern. Thus it provides a significance for a research.
EFFECT OF INTERNAL AUDIT AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN GOVERNMENT MINISTERS/ EXTRA MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENT (A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA)
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The practices of auditing originated from the necessity to impose some system of check upon persons whose business involves to record the receipt and disbursement of money on behalf of theirs. However, due to the crudeness of accounting methods in the early stages of civilization individuals checked... Continue Reading
GOVERNMENT INTERNAL AUDIT ACCOUNTABILITY IN MINISTRIES / EXTRA-MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENT. A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR-GENERAL OF ENUGU STATE. Abstract This study is intended to find out the impact of government internal audit and accountability in ministries and Extra – ministerial in Nigeria context specifically. The literature... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This study is intended to find out the impact of government internal audit and accountability in ministries and Extra – ministerial in Nigeria context specifically. The literature review describes the various internal audit and accountability in ministries and extra-ministries and efficient application so that the funds general within... Continue Reading
IMPACT OF INTERNAL AUDIT AND ACCOUNTABILITY ON GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES / EXTRA MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENTS (A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA) Abstract This research work sought to evaluate the Impact of Internal Audit and Accountability on government ministries and extra ministerial department using the office of... Continue Reading
IMPACT OF INTERNAL AUDIT AND ACCOUNTABILITY ON GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES / EXTRA MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENTS (A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA) ABSTRACT This research work sought to evaluate the Impact of Internal Audit and Accountability on government ministries and extra ministerial department using the office of... Continue Reading
THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL AUDIT IN STATE MINISTRIES AND EXTRA- MINISTERIAL DEPARTMENTS (A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL) ABSTRACT This paper, assess the impact of internal Audit in state ministries and Extra-Ministerial Department (a case study of the Accountant-General of Enugu State). The methodology employed for data... Continue Reading
EFFCTIVENESS OF AUDITING AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF THE OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR GENERAL OF IMO STATE). ABSRACT The study dealt on the effectiveness of auditing and accountability in the public sector. The rapid development of financial management initiative in public sector and financial control has led to the need for... Continue Reading
THE ROLE OF AN INTERNAL AUDIT DEPARTMENT IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF BOARD OF INTERNAL REVENUE, OZORO, DELTA STATE) ABSTRACT The basic aim of this research work was to investigate and as certain the role of internal audit department and then ensure attainment of set objectives, the topic reveal that certain weakness in the effective of... Continue Reading
TABLE OF CONTENT Title page Approval page Dedication Acknowledgement Table of content CHAPTER ONE Introduction 1.1 Background of study 1.2 Definition of terms 1.3 Distinction between accountability... Continue Reading
ABSTRACT This research work was designed to study and investigate precisely the Role of Audit for the proper Accountability of Company’s Fund with special emphasis on Department of Petroleum Resources. Prudent fund management requires that available resources be equitable allocated to all activities or proposals such that each ill not suffer... Continue Reading