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EVALUATION OF CADMIUM AND ARSENITE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS ON CATFISH (ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, ALANINE PHOSPHATE AND TOTAL PROTEIN)

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:61
  • Methodology:Regression Analysis
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Medical and Health Science Project Topics & Materials)

EVALUATION OF CADMIUM AND ARSENITE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS ON CATFISH (ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, ALANINE PHOSPHATE AND TOTAL PROTEIN)
ABSTRACT
The negative consequences of cadmium and arsenite exploitation and exploration on the health status of exposed individuals cannot be over emphasized regardless of its heavy nature. Consumption of this contaminated fish (Clarias gariepinus) by the populace living in the area where the rivers are contaminated with these heavy metals are exposed to damage of the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium and arsenite contaminated diet on the liver level of Clarias gariepinus (catfish). Cadmium 5mg, arsenite 100mg, cyanide 2.5mg period of exposure was one month and two (2) weeks, water was constantly changed (interval of 2days) followed by recontamination. 20 fishes were used for each group but only four (4) were harvested for sacrifice. In comparison with the control, nsP>0.05: no significant, *P<0.05: significant increase and eP<0.05: significant decrease when compared to control group. The data obtained suggest a possible adverse effect of cadmium and arsenite on oxidative stress in catfish. There was a noticeable colour changes in the fishes and low PCV in the fishes that was contaminated, this demonstrates the adverse effect of cadmium and arsenite induced stress on cat fish.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE    1
1.0    INTRODUCTION    1
1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY    4
1.3    OBJECTIVES    4
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY    4
CHAPTER TWO    6
LITERATURE REVIEW    6
2.1    WATER POLLUTION    6
2.1.1    CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION    7
2.1.2    ORGANIC CONTAMINANT    7
2.1.3 INORGANIC CONTAMINANT    8
2.1.4 CHEMICAL CONTAMINANT    8
2.2 METABOLISM OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON CATEFISH    9
2.3 CADMIUM    10
2.4    EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON CATFISH    13
2.5 THE MECHANISM FOR METAL INDUCED OXIDATIVE DAMAGE    15
2.5.1    PROPOSED MECHANISM FOR CD-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS    17
2.5.2    CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CADMIUM    19
2.5.3    ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF CADMIUM    21
2.5.4    HEALTH EFFECTS OF CADMIUM    22
2.5.5 ARSENITE    23
2.5.5.1    EFFECT OF ARSENITRE ON CATFISH    24
2.5.5.2    CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ARSENITE    27
2.6 ARSENIC EFFECT IN THE ENVIRONMENT    28
2.6.1    HEALTH EFFECT OF ARSENIC    29
CHAPTER THREE    30
3.0    METHODOLOGY    30
3.1    MATERIALS    30
3.1.1    EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS    30
Storage of Fishes    30
Sacrifice    32
3.1.2    EQUIPMENT    32
3.1.3    MATERIALS    33
3.1.4    CHEMICALS AND REAGENTS    33
3.2.2    TC-MULTI-PURPOSE CALIBRRATOR MAY BE USED TO REPLACE STANDARD    35
3.2.3    TOTAL PROTEIN    38
3.2.4    SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AND WARNINGS    40
3.2.5    STABILITY AND PREPARATION OF REAGENT    41
3.3    MANUAL – TOTAL PROTEIN (TP) 245    44
3.3.1    INTERFERENCE    45
3.3.2    LINEARITY    46
3.3.3    ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERRASE (AST)    46
3.3.4    REAGENT CONTENTS    47
CHAPTER FOUR    49
4.1    RESULT    49
CHAPTER FIVE    53
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION    53
5.0    DISCUSSION    53
5.1    CONCLUSION    54
REFERENCES    56
APPENDIX    61
 CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
The contamination of fresh water with a wild range of pollution has become a matter of concern over the last few decades (Vutukuru, 2005; Dirilgen, 2001). The natural aquatic system may extensively be contaminated with heavy metals released from domestic industrial and other man-made activities.
    Heavy metals contamination may have devastating effects on the ecological balance of the recipient environment and a diversity of aquatic organisms (Farombi et al., 2007; Vosyliene and Jankaite, 2006; Ashraj, 2005).
    Cadmium is considered as one of the most toxic heavy metals. It is non-essential element to all living organisms. Rivers and lake shores are the areas primarily affected by diluted cadmium waste from industrial facilities in big cities. The cadmium related contamination of the aquatic habitat has greatly increased in the last decades, resulting in an increase in cadmium deposits in tissues of aquatic organisms in all food chain system. It is important to note that cadmium is a highly toxic element for all mammals and fish. Cadmium levels have constantly been increasing and consequently the research on cadmium has become quite topical and urgent. Accumulation of cadmium in living organisms is a major ecological concern, especially because of its ability t o accumulate very quickly. By contrast, the excretion of cadmium from living organisms is a slow process. In fish, cadmium can cause a number of structural and pathomorphological changes in various organs. The highest cadmium levels were detected in the kidneys and liver of fish (Thophon et al., 2003).
    Arsenite is also considered as one of the heavy metals that is a non-essential element to all living organisms. It is mainly transported in the environment by water. In oxygenated water arsenic usually occur as arsenate, but under reducing conditions for instance, in deep well-waters arsenite predominate. In water the methylation of inorganic arsenic to methyl and dimethyl arsenic acids is associated with biological activities. Some marine organisms have been shown to transform inorganic arsenic into more complex organic compounds, such as arsenobetane, arsenocholin, arsoniumphospholipids. The major routes of arsenic absorption in the general population are ingestion and inhalation. Arsenic (As) and its compounds are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit both metallic and non-metallic properties. The trivalent and pentavalent forms are the most common oxidation states. From both the biological and the toxicological points of view, arsenic compounds.
1.2 SCOPE OF STUDY
    The scope of this research work involves an in-vivo investigation of the evaluation of cadmium and arsenic induced oxidative stress on the catfish liver.
1.3    OBJECTIVES
    To access the evaluation of cadmium and arsenic induced oxidative stress in catfish by evaluating the serum level of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine phosphate (ALP) and total protein (TP).
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
    The significant of this study is to known the evaluation of the effect of cadmium and arsenite on serum liver enzymes in Clarias gariepinus. To detect the level of those heavy chemical on Clarias gariepinus. The exposure of human and animals to heavy metal which increase the chemical and environmental level application to the body risk for impairment.


EVALUATION OF CADMIUM AND ARSENITE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS ON CATFISH (ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE, ALANINE PHOSPHATE AND TOTAL PROTEIN)

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Details

Type Project
Department Medical and Health Science
Project ID MHS0110
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 61 Pages
Methodology Regression Analysis
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Medical and Health Science
    Project ID MHS0110
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 61 Pages
    Methodology Regression Analysis
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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