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GENERAL SANI ABACHA FOREIGN POLICY 1993 – 1998

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  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:74
  • Methodology:descriptive
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  • Format:Microsoft Word
(International and Diplomatic Studies Project Topics & Materials)
GENERAL SANI ABACHA FOREIGN POLICY 1993 – 1998
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY SINCE 1960
    Nigeria became an independent Nation in October, 1st  1960 and by virtue of her sovereign state, was entitled to enter into relations with the other actors in world politics.
    The speech of the Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa at independence on October 1st 1960, seemed to indicate that Nigeria was properly focused and her mind-set firmly directed at the goal of her foreign policy, He declared;
I have confidence that, based on the happy experience of a successful partnership our future relations with the United Kingdom will be more cordial that ever, bound together as we shall be in the commonwealth by a common allegiance to her Majesty Queen Elizabeth who we proudly acclaim as Queen of Nigeria hence we are grateful to the British officers whom we have known, first as masters, and then as leaders and finally as partners but always as friends.
    In 1960, Nigeria finally gained her independence, from Britain after several, of colonial rule, within this colonial period, Nigeria’s affairs both local and international were conducted by Britain. As a result of this, at independence Nigeria Inherited treaties   and policies made on her behalf by Britain.
    The elite, who inherited political power from the colonial masters were like the British and had British orientations. All these can explain why in the first republic, Nigeria’s external relations were with Britain and Britain’s allies including United States. It also explains why Nigeria had no diplomatic relations with Britain’s ideology foes like Russia and other socialist countries. The political history of Nigeria affects her foreign policy, because of her colonial experience, Nigeria at independence vow to fight colonialism in al forms from the continent of Africa. This explains the country’s total commitment to the anti-apartheid in South Africa.
     A country’s ideology affects her foreign policy. Those countries with communist ideology pursued anti-capitalist policies, while those with capitalist, ideology such as United States pursued socialism policies, the cold war between America and the Soviet Union was an ideological war, Nigeria  ideology is neither capitalist nor communist with her professed non alignment, she interacts freely with the two major ideological camps.
    The geographical locations of a country also influences her foreign policy. Another factor affecting a country’s foreign is her national interest. A country’s national interest is the aims, goals objectives she wants to achieve respect prestige or recognition by giving aids helps to needy countries. Countries distress). It is difficult to say exactly what constitutes to national interest, at times, it might be the contest of the rich and the influential.
    Scholars on Nigeria foreign policy stated that the main objective of our foreign policy is to promote, protect and defend the country’s national interest, in her interactions with the outside world and relationship with specific countries in the international arena.2
    Writing on Nigeria Foreign Policy;
Bolaji Akinyemi stated that Nigeria national interest consist of:  
i.    The defense of the country’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity.
ii.    The eradication of all forms of colonialism and whit e minority rule from the  face of Africa, and the restoration of human dignity to black men and women all over the world.
iii.    The creation of the relevant political and economic conditions in Africa and the rest of the world which would not only facilitate the preservation of territorial integrity and security of all African states, but also foster national self reliance in African countries.
iv.    The promotion and improvement of the economic well being of the Nigerian citizens and
v.    The promotion of world peace  with justices.3
Nigeria’s foreign policy before Abacha’s Era:
    Nigeria gained her independence October 1st 1960; and was registered as 99th members of the United Nations; She became a recognized member of the international community. By her resources and size, Nigeria was expected to be at the front seat of Africa providing with others the good leadership and weapon to fight colonialism, neocolonialism under-development, racial discrimination. Some leaders gave the nation its right to place, for example, General Yakabu Gowon administration (1966-1975) jointly with the president Eyedema of Togo spear headed the formation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) for the liberation of trade – free trade amongst the sub-region.
    It was a clear manifestation in 1975, of how personal relationship between Nigeria and Togo, a francophone country manifested in bringing together different countries of the West African sub-region for the purpose of economic integration.
    General Murtala Muhammed/General Olusegun Obasanjo (1975-1979) pursued a purposeful foreign policy for Nigeria. This resulted in the support for liberation, movement in Africa – the MPLA in Angola.
Alhaji Shehu Shagari administration (1979-1983) was able to sustain Nigeria’s anti apartheid policy in South Africa while maintaining friendly relations with Nigeria’s Western allies. The Muhammadu Buhari regime (1984-1985), which succeeded it, though lacking a properly domestic policy was able to posit the concept of concentric circle as the modality for the pursuit of the nations foreign policy. The Buhari’s regime was handicapped by Nigeria’s economic landscape, according to Otubanjo which was strewn with debts and bankruptcies. The economy was indeed the motive force of Buhari’s foreign policy. This was why in matters of  substance rather than declarations, economic relations were the dominant focus of foreign policy in the period of  his regime;
    That is in the twenty months …. Where as the regime consistently declared it commitment to good neigbouriness, it adopted policies which were decidedly hostile to the interest to her neighbors and prejudicial to peaceful relations.4
    The Ibrahim Babangida regime (1985-1993), created a domestic structure that was comfortable to the articulation of foreign policy. All the political detainees of Buhari regime were released, by Babangida. He expanded the scope of participation in governance and allowed Nigerians to have a sense of belonging. His regime played a regional power politics in Africa. Besides, Nigeria citizens assumed international responsibilities.
    Alhaji Rilwanu Lukman was at OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). Late General Joe Garba assumed the presidency of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Chief Emeka Anyaoku assumed the position of the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
    Besides during his era, Nigeria formed ECOWAS Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) which was at thee heart of solving the Liberian crises and whose activity later extended to Sierra Leone. The emergence of General Abacha (1993-1998) shall be discuss in the next chapter and can be labeled as the dark years of Nigeria’s foreign policy, according to Dipo Kolawole. The era witnessed the squanding of all the gains since 1960.
    This survey of Nigeria foreign policy since 1960 showed an established pattern and tradition of commitment by successive regimes to a purposeful foreign policy until the regime of Abacha.
    In conclusion, the Nigerian foreign policy thrust prior to the coming of Abacha was centred on promoting, the African course. Thus, from 1960, when Nigeria gained her independence from the time Tafawa Balewa took over the reins of power until the time of Ibrahim Babangida’s regime there have been no doubt that these leaders pursued a foreign policy agenda with the hinged on the establishment of a decentralized states system in Africa which entails the enthronement of peace unity, freedom and justice within the African continent.
 Endnotes
1.    B. Akinyemi, Philosophy of Nigeria Foreign Policy, London: New  Nigeria Magazine, October 1996, p.18.
2.     D. Kolawole, From Isolation to Globalization: Transformation of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy from the Abacha Regime to Obasanjo Administration. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.3, No.6, 2005, pp. 873-874.
3.    Ibid.  
4.    Ogunsanwo, A, Nigeria’s New Foreign Policy: Ile-Ife University of Ife (1979), p.22.
5.    
6.    Ibid.
7.    O. Aluko, “Nigerian Foreign Policy”. London Press (1977).
8.    Ibid.
9.    Ibid.
10.    I. Idang, Nigeria Internet Politics and Foreign Policy 1960-1966: Ibadan, Ibadan University Press, 1973, p.14.
11.    Ibe M.A Obach, Nigeria’s African Policy, Cross continent Press Limited, Lagos, 1990, p.78.
12.    Ibid.
13.    Ibid.


GENERAL SANI ABACHA FOREIGN POLICY 1993 – 1998

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Details

Type Project
Department International and Diplomatic Studies
Project ID IDS0077
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 74 Pages
Methodology descriptive
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department International and Diplomatic Studies
    Project ID IDS0077
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 74 Pages
    Methodology descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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