THE EFFECT OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. A CASE STUDY OF IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE ABSTRACT This project work seeks to find out the effects of reward and punishment on academic performance of students. A case study of Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area in Edo State. During the study, data were collected through the use of questionnaires and oral interview. 20 questionnaires were given to students in Peak Comprehensive High School, 23 to students in Queen Ede Secondary School and 60 to students in Golden Foundation Academy. In this work, effects have been made to point out that rewards and punishments are weapons of descriptive and that they have important role to perform in school administration and academic performance of students. During this study, I discovered that some teachers administer or punish some students involve turns out to see punishment as a wicked act and not a measure of correcting a wrong act. One of the conclusion drawn from the study is that reward and punishment plays a big and important role in teaching and learning process and should be practiced in schools. Some of the recommendations made were that teachers should use punishment and rewards widely in learning situations in schools. And let punishment be appropriate and suitable for the offence for which it is used. TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter One 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Statement of the problem 1.3 Purpose of study 1.4 The significance of the study 1.5 Research Questions 1.6 Limitations of the study 1.7 Definition of terms Chapter Two 2.0 Literature Review Chapter Three 3.0 Methodology of the study 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Administration of Questionnaire 3.3 Research Instrument 3.4 Validity of Instrument 3.5 Method of Data Analysis Chapter Four 4.0 Data analysis and presentation Chapter Five 5.0 Summary, conclusion and Recommendations 5.1 Summary 5.2 Conclusion 5.3 Recommendation References Questionnaire CHAPTER ONE 1.0. Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study The means through which a teacher can maintain class discipline in secondary schools is through reward and punishment. The effective use of reward and punishment in secondary schools had been expressed with different views by many educationists and psychologist. And these contributing views and feelings of others (educationist and psychologists) will be brought together by the writer during the course of study so that the reader can be given sufficient ground-work on which to base his conclusion after reading the research work. Reward and punishment is eq1ually an area of interest, which closely involves many parents and teachers who feel the need for education authorit6y to define its limitation so as not to over step their units. Rewards and punishment, especially when they are related to learning process, are most debated solution must be sought out in this intriguing issue because the outcome will give a practical advice and guidance to those who are just beginning the teaching career or to parents who show much concern over their children’s success in life. This work does not ever claim to solve all the problems concerned with punishment and reward in learning process in the school but rather to highlight some possible solutions, which will be of abundant educational values to both teachers and parents and the public in general. 1.2 Statement of Problem This work is on the study of the effects of rewards and punishment on academic performance of students in some selected schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. Many educationalists (psychologist) have written many books covering this topic., the writer attempts in the study therefore is to examine the views of some of these renowned writers in addition to their “research finding” and personal experience so as to be able to know the following main/sub problems. 1. To find out whether effective learning can always take place in absence of any form of punishment. 2. Whether there is other methods of learning effectively where by reward and punishment will not be employed. 3. If punishment has effect on the learning process of the students in secondary school. 4. If reward and punishment can be combine so that much can be achieved in terms of educational objectives. 1.3 Purpose of Study The main aims and objective why the writer is carrying out this research is simply to give more information about reward and punishment inn secondary schools learning in Ikpoba Okha Local Government in Edo State. 1.4 The Significance of Study This study will help to lay more emphasis on the effective use of punishment and reward by policy makers. Those who plan the curriculum in the secondary schools will be equipped with the effects of reward and punishment in our secondary schools. It will also benefits the Edo State ministry of education because it will provide them useful information about the roles of rewards and punishments as a means of enhancing learning in our society at large. 1.5 Research Questions This study will be guided by the following questions. 1. Is punishment a way of correcting student? 2. Do parents and teachers support the use of punishment? 3. Does reward promote or encourage learning? 4. Does punishment have negative effect on learning? 1.6 Scope of the Study This research is concerned with reward and punishment in some selected secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. It involves about five teachers from both junior and senior secondary school and about a hundred students. 1.7 Definition of Terms Reward: An act of appreciating a job well done. Punishment: An act of correcting a wrong “act” or character exhibited.
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