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MANAGING EMPLOYING BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:149
  • Methodology:Regression Analysis
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Business Administration and Management Project Topics & Materials)
MANAGING EMPLOYING BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE
ABSTRACT
As today’s businesses continue to struggle to survive or acquire sustainable competitive advantage, it is important for organizations to better understand the factors that influence employees and important employee-oriented work outcomes. Employees are important for organizational outcomes such as innovation, survival and effectiveness. When employees use their creativity at work they can produce useful ideas about organisational products, procedures, or services. The main objective of this study is to examine employee’s behaviour and attitude for effective organizational performance. Four research questions and hypotheses were formulated for the purpose of investigation. The study adopted the cross sectional survey design thereby making the questionnaire the main instrument of data collection. A total of twenty question items were designed for questionnaire distribution in order to elicit responses after validity and reliability test. A sample of 92 respondents was selected from staffs of Uvwie Local Government,Effurun, Delta State. The study employed regression analysis with the aid of SPSS version 20 to analyze and test the hypotheses. The result of the hypotheses shows that the Null hypotheses were rejected because the computed p-value is less than the significance level (α) of 0.05 (0.00 TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background to the Study    -    -    -    -    --    -    -    
1.2    Statement of the Research Problem     -    -    -    -    -    
1.3    Objective of the Study       -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1. 4    Research Questions    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.5    Research Hypothesis    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.6    Significance of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.7    Scope / Limitations of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    
1.9      Definition of Terms    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER TWO:  LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2    Conceptual Framework    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2.1    The Concept of Employees and Attitude        -    -    -    -    
2.2.2    Commitment    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2.3    Job Satisfaction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2.1     Concept of Productivity    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.2.2    Concept of Workforce Productivity    -    -    -    -    -    
2.3    Theoretical Framework-    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
2.4    Empirical Review of Related Literature    -    -    -    -    -    
2.4.1    Effect of employees commitment on organizational performance -    -    
2.4.2    Effect of employees attitude on organizational performance-    -    -    
2.4.1    Effect of employees satisfaction on organizational performance    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0     Introduction -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.1    Research Design -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2    Population of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2.1    Sampling Technique    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2.2  Sample size determination     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.3    Method of Data Collection-    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4    Source of Data    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4.1    Questionnaire    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4.2    Questionnaire validity    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.4.3    Reliability of Questionnaire    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.5    Method of Data Analysis     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
3.5.1    Model Specification    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION  
4.0    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1    Data Analysis -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.2    Demographic Characteristics of Respondents    -    -    -    -    
4.1.2:  Descriptive Statistics on the Effect of employees positive reinforcement on
Organizational performance-    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.3:  Descriptive Statistics on the Effect of employee commitment on organizational
Performance    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.4:  Descriptive Statistics on the Effect of employee satisfaction on organization
Performance    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.5:  Descriptive Statistics on the factors influencing employees attitude for
organizational performance    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.6:  Data Analysis of Regression Model 1    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.7   Data Analysis of Regression Model 2    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.8:  Data Analysis of Regression Model 3    -    -    -    -    -    
4.1.9:  Data Analysis of Regression Model 4    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2     Test of Hypotheses    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2.1  Test of Hypothesis One    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2.2  Test of Hypothesis Two    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2.3  Test of Hypothesis Three    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2.4  Test of Hypothesis Four    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.3.   Findings of the Study    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.4    Discussion of Findings     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1    Summary    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.2    Conclusion    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.3    Recommendations    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.4    Suggestions for Further Research    -    -    -    -    -    -    
References    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
Appendix    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background to the Study
As today’s businesses continue to struggle to survive or acquire sustainable competitive advantage, it is important for organizations to better understand the factors that influence employees and important employee-oriented work outcomes. Employees are important for organizational outcomes such as innovation, survival and effectiveness (Amabile, 2006). When employees use their creativity at work they can produce useful ideas about organisational products, procedures, or services. The importance of creativity and the level of creativity required will differ depending on the positions or responsibilities in question, but most managers would agree that there is room, in almost every position, for employees to be more creative (Shalley & Gilson, 2004).
Armstrong (2008) argues that one of the most important, if not the most important, responsibilities of a manager is to ensure that the members of the team achieve high levels of performance. The organisation may well have a performance management system which provides guidance on how this should be done, but ultimately it is up to the manager to implement it. Performance management systems only work if managers want them to work and are capable of making them work and, of course, if they have the necessary cooperation and commitment of all staff. That implies that managers can also influence employees by transferring their feelings to them.
In literature, researchers have found links between organizational climate and employee attitudes and behaviours. Researchers suggest that organizational climate related with positive behaviours like innovative behaviour, organizational citizenship behaviour and negative organizational behaviours like counterproductive behaviours. (Bellou and Andronikidis, 2009; Scheuer, 2010; Farooqui, 2012; Fagbohungbe, 2012; Al-Saudi, 2012; (Wolf, 2012). Because, people tend to accept and internalize the climate of the organization in which they work, and the perception of climate has an important impact on their behaviour (Vardi, 2001). If employees perceive that the organization stands behind them and performs employee oriented politics, they are more likely to be persistent, innovative and helpful when faced with unexpected problems. Conversely, employees who perceive their work environments as being non supportive or unwelcoming they are more likely to exhibit negative or counterproductive behaviours (Wolf, 2012)
The growing significance placed on understanding employees and their behaviour within the organization has produced a great deal of interest in investigating employee perceptions of climate within the organization (Riggle, 2007). One of the prerequisites of organizational change management is that for initiating and implementing successful change which is necessary to conduct a complete and systematic process for transforming the organizational realities. For that, the leadership development plays a very important role, being a key factor in the process of organizational transformation that can explain the shift from a competitive level to another one (Radu & Nastase, 2011)
Attitudes towards organizational change may be defined as an employee's overall positive or negative evaluative judgment of a change initiative implemented by their organization (Elias, 2009). It is the internal state that influences individual's choices of personal action, or a response tendency towards the change (Bianey, 2004). It is the certain regularities of an individual's feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act towards some aspect of his or her environment (Visagie, 2010)
The capabilities of managers, employees and work environment are examined by organizational change that affects employee attitudes and behaviours by turning a situation from the known to the unknown. Some researchers focused on change that may have a serious negative impact on employee attitudes (Weber & Weber, 2001). Therefore, creating employee positive attitudes boosts the readiness of employees as an important factor for successful organizational change (Rafferty & Simon, 2006; Bareil et al., 2007).
Organizational policies and strategies have to be changed due to the growing globalization of business, increasing competition and technological advancement (Hampel & Martinsons, 2009). Most challenges in organizations are generated by competition, advanced technology, mergers, expansion, product quality maintenance, enhancing employee efficiency, rapid growth, new business ventures, exciting opportunities, innovations, and new leadership and management approaches (Madse, 2005).
Most organizations have realized that the performance of their workers plays a vital role in determining the success of the organization (Zheng, 2010; Ajila and Awonusi, 2004). As such, it is important for employers and managers alike to know how to get the best of their workers. One of the antecedent determinants of workers’ performance is believed to be employee commitment (Ali, 2010; Ajila and Awonusi, 2004). As such, it is important for employers and managers alike to know how to get the best of their workers.
Employee commitment has become one of the most popular work attitudes studied by practitioners and researchers. Akintayo (2010) and Tumwesigye (2010) noted that one of the reasons why commitment has attracted research attention is that organizations depend on committed employees to create and maintain competitive advantage and achieve superior performance.
Commitment employees who are highly motivated to contribute their time and energy to the pursuit of organizational goals are increasingly acknowledged to be the primary asset available to an organization (Hunjra, 2010). They provide the intellectual capital that, for many organizations, has become their most critical asset (Hunjra, 2010). Furthermore, employees who share a commitment to the organization and their collective well-being are more suitable to generate the social capital that facilitates organizational learning and performance. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate employee’s behaviour and attitude for effective organizational performance.
1.2    Statement of the Research Problem
Managing employee’s behaviour and attitude is a complex phenomenon. In managing employee’s behaviour and attitude, the manager must possess the requisite management and leadership skill.
There is significant evidence that productivity advancement in government organizations has not kept pace with the increases found in the private sector (Killefer & Mendonca, 2006). Williams (2003) documented efforts to measure performance in the New York City government in the early 1900s. Political issues limited the success of most attempts to measure or improve productivity in the city.
In 2003, the Nigerian Federal Government passed the Government Performance and Results Act designed to require strategic plans and annual performance reports from all federal agencies. However, by 2008, the act and its requirements were mostly being ignored (Friel, 2008). Later, the Senate extended the Government Performance and Results Act to require gathering of data on key performance indicators. But, yet again, government agencies have not put the data collected to any productive use (Brodsky, 2010). Finally, in November 2011, “The federal labour-management council accepted recommendations to improve the government’s performance management system, approving for agencies a roadmap that emphasizes better training for supervisors and more communication between employees and their bosses” (Lunney, 2011). With all these laws and acts being enacted and without proper implementation of such law will still not produce and lasting result.
As Nigeria strives to attain its 20:20:20 goal it is imperative for it to analysis the strategies employed by management in managing employees behaviour and attitude ranging from positive reinforcement, discipline and extinction are essential for effective organizational performance. Before incorporating any of these strategies, managers must understand how each strategy works and be fully aware of its potential benefits and drawbacks. Regardless of the approach eventually selected, managers who have earned the trust and respect of their team are likely to be better able to motivate employees to achieve greater success. The key problem under study in this work is the behavioural and attitudinal dispositions of workers in Nigerian organizations and what corporate bodies should do to handle these attitudinal and behavioural traits to ensure optimum performance. It is on this note the researcher is poised to examine the effect of employees behaviour and attitude for effective organizational performance.
1.3    Objective of the Study   
The main objective of this study is to examine employee’s behaviour and attitude for effective organizational performance. The specific objectives of the study include:
i.    To examine the effect of  employees Positive reinforcement on organizational performance
ii.    To examine the effect of employees commitment on organizational performance
iii.    To examine the effect of employees satisfaction on organizational performance
iv.    To examine the factors influencing employees  and attitude for organizational performance
1. 4    Research Questions
The following research questions were raised for the study:
i.    To what extent has employees Positive reinforcement affected organizational performance
ii.    To what extent has employees commitment affected organisational performance
iii.    To what extent has employees satisfaction affected organizational performance
iv.    To what extent has the  factors influencing employees  and attitude affected organisational performance
1.5    Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses are advanced in order to provide answers to the research questions:
i.    There is no significant effect between positive reinforcement and organizational performance
ii.    There is no significant effect between employees commitment and organizational performance
iii.    There is no significant effect between employees satisfaction and organizational performance
iv.    There is no significant influence between the factors influencing employees behaviour and attitude and organizational performance.
1.6    Significance of the Study
The significance of this study relies on its ability to make contribution to knowledge in this field. The study seeks to examine the effects of employee’s behaviour and attitude for effective organizational performance.
It is hoped that, when the study is successfully completed will serve as a source of policy guidance to the study organization and provide necessary incentive for increasing employee’s productivity.
It will help to enlighten the management of the organization on the need and importance of having effective leaders in the organization.
It will enlighten the employee on their roles and obligations to the leadership in the organization and other related matters. It will identify the reason why employees react positively to a particular leadership style of a manager and also aim at discovering what makes workers to be dedicated and committed to their duties.
The research will help to challenge both the management and workers in the organization on both the importance attached to increase employee’s productivity.
The finding and recommendation of this study will form a basis of research to others that would want to go into further study on this topic and contribute to the existing literature as few studies in this area were available
1.7    Scope / Limitations of the Study
The scope of study is exclusively restricted to government institutions in Nigeria. However, it should not be misconceived that the study has no relevance to other private organizations in Nigeria they are bound to face such problem considering the globalize nature of organizational environment.
Some of the constraints encountered in carrying out this research work are;
Finance; the study is one that requires money to enable the researcher to browse more information and also to carry out the research work effectively but due to this financial constraint, the researcher could not get everything required for this project thereby hampering the best work on the study.
Time; this study is one that required longer time to enable the researcher get the necessary and quality data for effective work but since it is a project  research  of student  which  takes  only  three  months  that  is  a semester work as required by the school, the researcher is less of valid information to use.
Attitude of respondents; To make this study a very viable one, some vital information is requested from government institutions in Nigeria, which the management are not willing to release, and workers inability to identify their motivating factors and reasons for poor behavioural attitudes in their work place.
1.9      Definition of Terms
   This deals with definitions and terminologies relevant and identified with the field and area of the subject matter, they are as follows;
Worker: This is defined as someone of legal age who agrees to undertake or perform an assigned task or service as proposed by his employer who agrees to pay him for the execution of such task.
Employee: This is an individual who works part-time or full-time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written, expressed or implied and has recognized rights and duties.
Employer: A legal entity that controls and directs an employee under an express or implied contract of employment and pays (or is obligated to pay) an agreed sum known as salary or wages, in the completion of such task or compensation.
Organization:  This is a social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals, through assigning roles, responsibilities and authority to carry out different tasks to achieve a common goal.
Productivity: Is a measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory or system in converting inputs into outputs. Productivity is a critical determinant of cost efficiency.
Performance: This is defined as the accomplishment of a given task, measured against preset or known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. In other words, it is the fulfillment of an obligation in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities if under a contract.
Motivation: This is an internal and external factor that Oto be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, also seen as an act of encouraging someone or the employee.

MANAGING EMPLOYING BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDE FOR EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE

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Details

Type Project
Department Business Administration and Management
Project ID BAM1552
Price ₦3 ($0)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 149 Pages
Methodology Regression Analysis
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Business Administration and Management
    Project ID BAM1552
    Price ₦3 ($0)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 149 Pages
    Methodology Regression Analysis
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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