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SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFANT AND CHILD SURVIVAL IN AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY USING AGBARHO

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:100
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFANT AND CHILD SURVIVAL IN AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY USING AGBARHO
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), a measure of child survival, is considered to be one of the strongest indications of a country’s well being, as it reflects social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their health care. (Alderman and Behrman, 2004: vii).
Infant and child mortality remain disturbingly high in developing countries despite the significant decline in most parts of the world. The state of the world’s children indicated that about 12.9 million children die every year in developing world (UNICEF, 1987). Also, the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 1990 reported that 87 0f 1000 infants born in Nigeria die before reaching age five (FOS, 1992). The 1999 NDHS reported an infant mortality rate of 75 deaths per 1000 live births and under-five mortality rate of 140 deaths per 1000 live births for the 1995 to 1999 period.
Also, review of trends in under five mortality rates between 1960 and 1998 by UNICEF (2000), based on an estimate of 187 deaths per 1000 for 1998 indicates a 10 percent reduction in Nigeria.
According to the Nigeria Demographic and Health Service (NDHS), 1999, infant mortality and under five mortality rates for the ten years period preceding the survey for the South Western part of Nigeria, are 70 per 1000 and 102 per 1000 live birth respectively (NPC, 2000). The level of improvement in infant and child mortality in Nigeria as a whole is significantly lower than the average of 34 percent for Sub-Sahara Africa. And according to 2014 reports by UNICEF, 20 percent of child deaths in Sub-Sahara Africa occur in Nigeria. A development that has increasingly made Nigeria the cynosure of all eyes during global discussions on child mortality issues.
At the beginning of this millennium, countries of the world agreed to reduce by two-thirds the under-five mortality rate by the year 2015. Between 2009 and 2011, the under-five mortality rate has dropped by about 45 percent globally. However, this progress is not the reality for all countries. Currently about half of the world’s under-five death occur in five countries: Nigeria, India, Congo, Pakistan and China.
Despite our collective efforts, under-five mortality rate Nigeria has increased rather than reducing in the recent years. The multiple indicator cluster survey (MICSH) report indicated that the under-five mortality in Nigeria increased from 138 per 1000 live births in 2007 to 158 per 1000live births in 2011. This implies that 158 out of every 1000 children born in Nigeria will die before they celebrate their fifth birthday.
Unfortunately, a majority of these deaths are due to preventable causes which could be averted by a variety of simple methods.
Moreover, the importance of mother’s education for child survival through pathways other than enhanced socioeconomic status was brought into focus by Caldwell’s (1979) seminal paper on Nigeria. This paper argued that education of women played an important role in determining child survival even after control for number of factors, including such socioeconomic characteristics of the husband, as his education level and occupation.
Other studies also show that increased levels of mother’s education were associated with improved chances of child survival in a wide range of developing countries: Hobercraft et al. (1984) covered 28 WFS surveys.  Mensch et al (1985) covered 15 countries. They also found that the association of maternal education and child survival was approximately the same in rural and urban areas.
There are also overwhelming evidence that the strong and persistent associations of infants and child mortality with birth spacing are barely mediated by maternal education.
It is in the light of these overwhelming facts available to us concerning the alarming rate if infant and child mortality in Nigeria in the presence and abundance of a myriads of solution that I present this work as a means to providing the awareness needed to sensitize the general public and specialized personnel’s on the pathway of escape from the societal plague of infant and child mortality in Nigeria.
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Seventy percent of deaths in children below the age of five years in Sub-Saharan Africa are attributable mainly to these conditions; Malaria, Measles, Malnutrition, Diarrhea diseases, acute respiratory tract infection esp. Pneumonia and HIV infection. Consequently, this project work tries to answer the following:
The socio-cultural factors that affects the survival of infants in Nigeria on a careful observation seem to have a parallel to those elsewhere in Africa. This is so due to the reason that while infant mortality may have been recorded on a large scale in Sub-Sahara Africa, it is also true that Africa and Nigeria in particular has recorded steady infant survival across communities that lack the access to basic primary health care facilities. This is evident from the steadily increasing population of Nigeria in particular and Africa at large. Hence, there readily comes to mind the question of what have been the factors responsible for the survival of infants and children in Africa despite overwhelming odds?
What simple methods has mothers and caregivers applied consistently overtime to sustain the survival of their infants and children under five years as this is the most sensitive stage in the life of a child.
1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research study is as follows;
i.    To explore and analyze the social factors promoting infant and child survival
ii.    To explore and encourage the cultural factors/practices that promotes better infant and child health
iii.    To identify the reasons for neglect of sociocultural factors supporting better chances of infant and child survival.
iv.    Finally, to identify the role of mothers and care givers in the administration and promotion of child survival strategies, and to encourage such.
HYPOTHESIS/ASSUMPTION
The researcher wants to find out how much the following questions apply to the study area.
1.    How and to what extent can socio-cultural factors such as access to qualitative healthcare, maternal education, good weaning practices etc. influence the level of infant and child survival?
2.    Could the level of infant and child survival be affected by religious and traditional beliefs?
3.    In what ways and to what extent does early child immunization and adequate maternal/family care affect the overall survival of children in Africa?
4.     In what ways and to what extent does early child immunization and adequate maternal/family care affect the overall survival of children in Africa?  
1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY    
Infant and child survival rate which is also a reflection of infant mortality rate is considered to be one of the strongest in indicators of a country’s wellbeing, as it reflects social, economic and environmental conditions in which the citizenry of that country lives. Therefore, this study will serve as a useful tool towards provision of awareness and sensitization aimed at improving infant and child survival in Nigeria, which could be a way towards enhancing better government health policies and adoption of positive cultural practices.
1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In this study, the researcher aims at investigating the relationship between socio-cultural factors and infant/child survival.
The area covered in this study will be some homes, market places and also churches within Agbarho, Ughelli-North local government area of Delta state.
The subject for this study would be mothers, guardians and other significant others. The time for the study would cover a two week period after the second semester final exams of the University of   Benin in the 2013/2014 academic session.
1.6    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Sourcing for the materials for the work is expensive and the time available for the work is too short. This might have an effect on the study and on its level of coverage.

SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFANT AND CHILD SURVIVAL IN AN AFRICAN COMMUNITY USING AGBARHO

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0230
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 100 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0230
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 100 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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