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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN BENDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:80
  • Methodology:Chi Square
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN BENDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE
ABSTRACT

This study examined the problems and prospects of community development in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State. Community development is a positive improvement in socio-cultural, economic, political and physical structures within the environments, which enhances man’s standard of living. It is a process of education by which people of all ages and all interests in the community learn to share their thoughts, their ideals, their participation, their joy’s and their sorrow’s and in a large measure, to mould and shape the communal destiny for themselves. It is a process of self-discovery by which the people of a community learn to identify and solve their community problems. The instrument used for this study was the questionnaire. The theoretical framework used in the study was system and management theory, while the data collected was analyzed using simple percentage and tested with Chi-square formula, for the purpose of ascertaining its validity. However, the study reviewed the historical antecedent, lack of fund, lack of patriotic spirit, undue political crisis, over-dependence on federal allocation, unclear plan goals, etc, which were the problems working against the rapid development of Bende Local Government Area and Nigeria in general. The study recommended that attitudinal change in our work environment are the basis or panacea for the community development of Bende Local Government Area. This is because, the greatest discovery of our generation is that, human beings can improve their living standard by altering the attitude of their minds. All hands must be on deck in order to fight underdevelopment, this is because development is of man, by man and for man.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study    -    -    -    
1.2    Statement of Problem    -    -    -    
1.3    Research Questions    -    -    -
1.4 Objectives of the Study    -    -    
1.5    Significance of the Study    -    -    
1.6    Definition of Terms/Concepts
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of Theoretical Literature    -    -    -
2.2 Review of Empirical Literature    -
2.3    Review of Relevant Theories    -
2.4    Theoretical Framework    -    
2.5   Hypotheses    -
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1   Study Design    -    -    -    -    -
3.2   Scope and Area of Study    -    -    -
3.3 Population of Study    -    -    -    
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique    -    -
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection    -    -    -
3.6   Method of Data Collection    -    -    -
3.7 Method of Data Analysis    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND HYPOTHESES TESTING
4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Respondents    -    
4.2 Major Research Issues    -    -    -    
4.3 Cross Tabulation of Research Variables    -    
4.4 Test of Hypotheses    -    -    -
4.5 Discussion of Findings    -    -    -    
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings    -    -    -    
5.2 Conclusion    -    -    -    
5.3 Implication of Findings for Social Work Practice in Nigeria    -
5.4 Recommendations    -    -    -    -    
References    -    -    -    
Appendix I    -    -    -    -    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the Study
Development is multi-disciplinary; this is because it is used in different fields of study. The concept is borrowed from physical or natural sciences. It is used to describe the different stages involved in the process of improving or changing the quality of an object or human beings. For example, the development of a photograph film or improvement and changes which occur from childhood to adulthood.
This study paid attention to the problems and prospects of community development in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State. The concept emphasizes the general increase in production and distribution of available goods and services, which can improve man’s standard of living. Chukwuezi, (2000) maintained that, ‘community may be referred to as a group of people interacting among themselves in a geographical defined space and time. They may share certain similar cultural attributes like norms, beliefs and value systems, etc.’
A community maybe homogenous or heterogeneous. Homogenous community is a community that has similar socio-cultural norms and social institutions. For example, most rural communities like Ozuitem community in Bende local government area of Abia State. Heterogeneous community is a community made up of people with diverse ethnic origin and different cultural practices. For example, the urban and semi-urban communities like Onitsha urban community, Nsukka urban community, Nnewi urban community, etc.
A similar characteristics is that a community must reflect the interaction of people within a defined spatial environment. Poston in Chukwuezi, (2000) defined community development as:
A process of education by which people of all ages and all interest in the community, learn to share their  thoughts, their ideals, their participation, their joys and sorrows and in large measure, to mould and shape the communal destiny for themselves.
Public participation, both in planning and implementation of development projects are very necessary for the development of any community. The people should be educated on the need for them to aspire towards a certain height, the peoples felt need should be identified and actions geared towards its realization instituted. Community development starts from mental disposition of individuals which make up the community. On the other hand, Okoli & Onah, (2002) noted that:
Rural development is conceived as being concerned with the improvement as well as the transformation of social, mental, economic, institutional and environmental conditions of the low income earners through the mobilization and rational utilization of their human, natural and institutional resources, so as to enhance their capacities to cope with their daily task of life and the demands of modern times.
From the above concept, one can see that community development does not only limit itself to erecting structures, construction of roads, provision of pipe borne water and electrification. It encompasses those activities that are geared towards the overall enhancement of the living conditions of rural dwellers.
International Association for Community Development (2016), defined community development as:
‘a practice-based profession and an academic discipline concerned with the organization, education and empowerment of people within their communities’.
In a wider perception, the aims of community development include employment, maximization of personal income of the people as a means of enhancing their standard of living, provision of technological equipment in order to increase the productivity of the individual and his family, creating awareness/sensitization which will enable rural inhabitants to be socio-politically and economically stable.
It is a well known fact that Nigerian communities are characterized by abject poverty, oppression, degradation, deprivation, lack of essential amenities, etc. The rural people have fewer opportunities for education, no employment opportunities, and the standard of living is generally poor. There is superstitious believes, high mortality rate and general lack of social infrastructures.
Unfortunately, this is so in Nigeria because most government policies geared towards community development have always been to the advantage of the few individuals who constitute the privileged class. Moreover, the administrative systems surrounding the implementation of community development programmes do not usually function in the interest of the majority and the same thing applies to the existing institutions, be they commercial, private or traditional. All these institutions, which are intended to function in the interest of the masses, invariably promote the interest of a few individuals who control and manipulate them.
When good modern houses and other social amenities are concerned in a particular geographical area of the country or within the state capital, there is no development. When scarce resources are abundant in few hands while the majority of the people are languishing in penury, development is still farfetched. There may be economic growth without community development in a country. This is because, economic growth is merely the increase in the production of goods and services. It has nothing to do with distribution of the available resources to the rural dwellers.
 Development can occur when the goods and services are evenly distributed in such a way that the majority of the masses can afford to shelter themselves, feed and have a sense of belonging, and security; all leading to enhancement of the peoples well-being.
 Development is a positive improvement in the peoples standard of living. These improvements must involve physical change, enhancing an individual’s coping capacity, modification of our culture, beliefs and people’s perception. Todaro, (1985) in his own view observed that:
Development is a multi-dimensional process involving the reorganization and re-orientation of the entire economic and social system.    This involves in addition to improvement of income and output, radical changes in institutional, social and administrative structures.
 Since the colonial era till date, a lot of developmental policies have been made. Successive governments in Nigeria have mapped out series of strategies aiming at improving the people’s standard of living at the rural areas.
 Regrettably, most of these policies have little to do with the felt need of the majority of the populace. It only express the wishes and aspirations of the elite class, who determines who gets what, when and how. The resultant effect is that the rich get richer while the poor gets poorer.
    According to Seers in Ndukwe, (2005), the questions to ask about a country’s development are:
(i)    What has been happening to poverty?
(ii)    What has been happening to unemployment?
(iii)    What has been happening to inequality?
        If there is reduction in poverty level, unemployment rate and inequality, then one can conclude that there is development. If one or two of these central problems have been growing worse, especially if all the three have been on the increase, it would be strange to call the result development, even if per capital income doubled.
         Development is summed up as man’s capacity to expand his own consciousness and therefore, his power over himself, his environment and his society. Man is central pivot around which development revolves. Development is for man, by man and of man. This means that man is not only the beneficiary of development efforts but must also initiate the action to develop himself. In other words, the opportunities created by development are generated or induced through efforts. Man must show the desire to develop before development can come. Besides, true development is that which leads to the expansion and growth of man’s inner qualities. Development must raise man’s ability to dominate himself, to become less dependent and more proficient in what he is doing as well as to become critical in outlook. Ndukwe, (2005).
         Amadi, (2009) noted that, as a result of Nigerian independence and subsequent creating of more states, local governments and recently development centers in  Abia state and Nigeria in general, increase in rate of development planning has become inevitable.
         Development planning in Nigeria can be traced back to 1946 after the second world war. Following the initiative of the secretary of states for the colonies in 1944, what was known as ten years of development and welfare came into operation. The formulation and implementation of the plan up to 1954 were highly centralized. The plan being actually prepared, under the direction of a small central development board, consisting exclusively of senior colonial government officials. This plan was not successful because the Nigerians whose welfare it was suppose to seek, were not involved in the formulation of the plan.
         As a prospect of community development, Nigeria has embraced community development oriented programmes such as Poverty Alleviation Programme (P.A.P), Better Life for Rural Women, Operation Feed the Nation (O.F.N), Green Revolution, Integrated Rural Development Programme.
         Nigerian local government system has been confronted with the problem of developing their communities and Bende Local Government is not an exception. It is an established fact that rural communities in Nigeria are characterized with backwardness in various ramification, this is in terms of shortage of infrastructural facilities and services.
1.2     Statement of Problem
         Different views has been expressed as to the organ or body that has the responsibility of executing community development programmes. In recent year, community developers have proved themselves veritable instrument for the planning and executing of community development programmes.
         The community development in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State embarked on a road construction project which have been abandoned for some years without accomplishment. This may be due to the problems of inadequate funds to carry out these developmental projects, not minding the fact that inadequate funding of the project may hinder the accomplishment of the road project. Absence of qualified manpower to enhance the technical area should not also be forgotten.
         As political entity, the community development project is always influenced by the politics of who should be the leader within the members based on the community development project and most of these leaders of community development are illiterates who may not know how to use modern equipment for development purposes.
         There are faces of underdevelopment in our rural areas. The number of able bodied men and women, who are able and willing to work but could not see any are still on the increase. Some families are still finding it difficult to take two square meals a day. Some are still vagabonds in their fatherland, as a result of no shelter, and the gap between the rich and poor are getting wider every day. In Bende Local Government Area, people still roof their huts with bunch of grasses, crowned with an old basin. These grasses at times do not prevent intensive rain from drenching the occupants of such houses. These are the condition of rural dwellers in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State.
1.3    Research Questions
(i)    To what degree has corruption negatively affect community development in Bende Local Government Area?
(ii)    How does lack of active participation an impediment to community development?
(iii)    To what extent have illiteracy and poverty been a setback to community?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
(i)    To examine the effect of corruption on community development in Bende Local Government Area.
(ii)    To ascertain what is responsible for the lack of active participation among members of the community.
(iii)    To ascertain the effect of illiteracy and poverty of members of the community in community development effect.
1.7     Significance of the Study
        The study is very imperative among men, women and children in Bende Local Government Area because the study was initiated bearing in mind the position of rural communities in the local government area. However, the problems which have been identified in the study area are  half-solved and should be totally tackled to bring succor to the people, since community development is the focus of the government.
         The study will equally help Non-Governmental Organizations (N.G.O’s) to assist government in bringing solution to some of the problems.
        Finally, policy makers and implementers will correct their mistakes from this study, thus finding solution to the numerous problems that are facing community development in Bende Local Government Area.
1.8     Definition of Terms/Concepts
        To the purpose of clarity, the research will operationalize the outstanding concept in the research work. They are community, development, local government.
COMMUNITY: This simply means group of people with the same or common tradition, belief, custom and language, living within a specific geographical area.
DEVELOPMENT: This could be seen as a deliberate effort made by human beings so as to tap available human and non-human resources at a given time in order to bring positive result.
LOCAL GOVERNMENT: This could be seen as the third tier of government (government at the grass root) created by law to take care of the people and to improve the social, economic and cultural conditions of the communities and of the integration of the communities into life of the nation.

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN BENDE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0223
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 80 Pages
Methodology Chi Square
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0223
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 80 Pages
    Methodology Chi Square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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