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STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY IN EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE: A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:83
  • Methodology:Chi Square
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Public Administration Project Topics & Materials)
STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY IN EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE: A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE
ABTRACT

 Results-based management is the talk of the day at all levels of the public sector: local, regional, national, and even supra national. Schools and universities, local governments, and other administrative agencies, also developmental aid organizations (nongovernmental organizations and international nongovernmental organizations) and organizations such as the World Bank, are all involved in producing data and information on performance results and—if possible–impact. The research design that was employed in this study is survey research design. The population of this research study is made up of both junior and senior staff of three ministries (land and survey, health and urban planning) of Edo state civil service with a population of 4,535 (Source: Ministry of information Edo State, 2013). Also, questionnaire was used as an instrument of data collection, while the techniques of data analysis include the simple percentage analytical method and the chi – square. The study found out amongst others that, the study found that there are strong links between workers motivation and higher productivity in Edo State Civil Service. it was discovered that majority of the sampled population is on the neutral view on whether or not the work environment in Edo State Civil Service increases job satisfaction which lead to high productivity. The study also found out that the nature of work at the Civil Service, Edo State do not encourage workers’ productivity. Furthermore, policy recommendations were adopted which include amongst others the following; the government and the board of management of Edo State Civil Service (ESCS) should provide more adequate and regular training facilities to enhance and improve staff development and productivity in the organization. There is also need for the government shall ensure a good and proper work environment for staff of Edo State Civil Service which will eventually lead to higher productivity. Also, the government should endeavor to put in place a body which will cater for the complains and needs of the workers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1.    Background to the study
1.2.    Statement of the problem
1.3.    Objectives of the study
1.4.    Research Questions
1.5.    Research Hypotheses
1.6.    Significance of the Study
1.7.    Scope of the Study
1.8.    Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1    Literature Review
2.2    Theoretical Framework
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1    Research Design
3.2    Population of the study
3.3    Sample size and Sampling Technique
3.4    Sources of Data Collected
3.5    Instrument Data Collection
3.5    Techniques of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS.
4.1    Data presentation and Analysis
4.2     Testing of hypotheses and interpretations
4.3    Discussion of research findings
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS
5.1    Summary
5.2      Conclusion
5.3    Policy Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDIX
CHAPTER ONE
1.1    INTRODUCTION
The quest for productivity improvement goes back to the beginning of civilization. The invention of stone tools, fire and iron are some of the oldest indicators of human endeavors to produce more (International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI), 2006). Economists in the 17th and 18th century developed theories to explain performance. The initial theories held that hungry workers would be more productive. This was however challenged by philosophers such as Adam Smith who argued that productivity would increase if workers were paid according to performance and proper strategies are adopted to bring satisfaction to workers (ISPI, 2006). Setting up and implementing strategies for higher productivity enhances performance both to the individual and the organization and encourages a culture of continuous improvement (Letsoalo, 2007). Performance improvement in the public service help in gaining public confidence that tax revenues are being used effectively (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA), 2010). Nzuve and Njeru (2011) argues that an effective performance management system defines expectations and align individual performance goals with those of an organization.
In recent times, states spend more attention, time, and money on performance measurement and evaluation in the public sector than ever before (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 1996; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2000:87). Results-based management is the talk of the day at all levels of the public sector: local, regional, national, and even supra national. Schools and universities, local governments, and other administrative agencies, also developmental aid organizations (nongovernmental organizations and international nongovernmental organizations) and organizations such as the World Bank, are all involved in producing data and information on performance results and—if possible–impact. Believers in New Public Management (NPM) attribute a high priority to measuring output and outcomes and aim to base their new policies and management activities on this type of information—ideally meant to make policy implementation more efficient and effective especially in the Nigerian civil service.
However, evaluation studies show that many attempts to introduce results-based management are still unsuccessful (Nwankwo, 2012). Nevertheless, the need for measuring output, outcomes, and evaluation activities remains an important element in statements by politicians and administrators focused on improving government’s performance in the civil service. The increased attention to strategies is to improving performance assessment in the public sector coincides with the rise of administrative reform (Power, 2000). In the 1980s, economic decline and increased international competition triggered such reform in most western states. New Public Management was the catchword (Hood, 1994). The objective was twofold: to cut budgets and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government bureaucracy. To achieve the latter objective, market-type mechanisms such as privatization, competitive tendering, and vouchers were introduced in the public sector, and departmental units were hived off into quasi-autonomous nongovernmental organizations.
In the proposition of Kalliola (2003) he postulated that;
“the legitimacy of public services is derived from the capacity to respond to the needs of citizens in an economically efficient way.” (p.113).
This concise statement by Kalliola encapsulates the emerging consensus that, while public sector productivity involves efficiency and outputs, it also involves effectiveness and outcomes (Pritchard 2003; Tolentino 2004). However, beyond that general level, there is less consensus - not least about the meaning of those terms.
As Halachmi (1999:9) notes:
“Even those who research performance and productivity in the public sector are not always in agreement when it comes to the exact distinction(s) or the functional relationships among concepts like: output, outcome, results, impact, objectives, accomplishments, direct/indirect (or primary/ secondary) performance indicators.”
In Kalliola’s formulation, at least two points illustrate the issues that make the whole question of public sector productivity a highly contentious one in many countries: are citizens being provided with what they need, and how could the services concerned make better use of the resources at their disposal? In the private sector’s production of goods for the market, productivity is defined as the ratio of outputs to inputs (Samuelson & Nordhaus, 1989). That seems simple, but as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has noted:
“Productivity is commonly defined as a ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input use. While there is no disagreement on this general notion, a look at the productivity literature and its various applications reveals very quickly that there is neither a unique purpose for, nor a single measure of, productivity.” (OECD 2001, p.11).
Thus, this study seeks to examine the productivity level of the civil service in Edo State, putting into consideration various challenges in promoting performance in the service.
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The success or failure of any government depends to a large extent on its workers. Amarachukwu (1997) might have had this in mind when he noted that the effectiveness of any organization depends on the efficiency of its workers. This efficiency, Amarachukwu (1997) further noted, can only be guaranteed by striking a balance between inner will of an employee and external drive from the management. Speaking specifically about civil service of a nation, Amarachukwu (1997) noted that it is the nerve centre of government activities. According to him, the effectiveness of a government is to a very great extent determined by the efficiency and competence of its civil service. Civil servants constitute the crucial factor in the efficient and effective management of government business. This is because it is the civil service that gives effect to all government policies whether in civilian or military regime, developed or developing countries, etc.
But with the set established objectives of the Nigeria civil service, it has been observed to be performing abysmally poor in the political and socioeconomic transformation of the country (Olaoye, 2009). According to Onah, (2010), its maladies include gross inefficiency and ineffectiveness, to bribery and corruption. There has also been persistent decline in the productivity of the civil service. Efforts in transforming the civil service and other government institutions for effective and efficient service delivery has, no doubt in recent times become one of the most pressing fundamental pre-occupations of government.
1.3    RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
    The following objectives will act as a guide to the research study;
1.    To examine various strategies suitable for improving productivity in Edo State civil service.
2.    To examine different motivational techniques appropriate for improving productivity in Edo State civil service.
3.    To evaluate various policies of improving productivity in Edo State civil service.
4.    To profer possible ways of solving the problems of low productivity level in Edo State civil service.
1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    The research intends to seeks answers to the following questions;
1.    What are the various strategies suitable for improving productivity in Edo State civil service?
2.    What are the different motivational techniques appropriate for improving productivity in Edo State civil service?
3.    What are the various policies of improving productivity in Edo State civil service?
4.    What are the possible ways of solving the problems of low productivity level in Edo State civil service?
1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
    To guide the focus of this research study, the following hypotheses will be tested.
HR1:     There is a significant relationship between various motivational strategies and higher productivity in Edo State civil service.
HR2:    There is a significant relationship between motivation techniques and productivity level in Edo State civil service.
HR3:    There is a significant relationship between government policies and the level of productivity in Edo state civil service.
1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    The Civil service is one of the agents of development in any nation. The transformation of any society or system depends on the effectiveness and efficiency of its civil service, particularly, the developing societies. Thus, if the essential strategic motivational tools for effective performance in the civil service are appropriately identified, adequately and thoroughly implemented, enhanced productivity and efficient service delivery are expected. Therefore, this study tends to bring out the importance of high productivity performance in the Edo State Civil Service. And it will be of immense benefit to both staff and management of any organization (both public and private), public policy makers and the academia.
1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In this study, the scope or boundary shall be within the focus of the researcher. Based on our subject matters, Edo State Civil Service, our area of concentration shall include, the various strategies for improving productivity in the service, the various policies of improving productivity in Edo State Civil Service. And lastly, the study shall dwell within the study of motivation and job satisfaction as it relates to staff performance for maximum productivity.
1.8    DEFINITION OF TERMS
Civil Service
Adamolekun (2002), states that the civil service is commonly used as the synonym of the machinery of the government, this is so in Britain and most common wealth countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the British conception, the civil service is used to refer to the body of permanent officials appointed to assist the decision makers. The civil service according to the 1999 constitution, section 318 sub sections 1 is:
Service of the Federation (state) in a civil capacity, staff of the office of the President, (Governor), the vice President, (Deputy Governor), a ministry or department of the federation (state), assigned with the responsibility for any business of the government of the federation (state), (FRN,1999).
The term civil service is normally used when referring to the body of men and women employed in a civil capacity and non-political career basis by the Federal and state Governments primarily to render and faithfully give effect to their decisions and implementation (Ipinlaiye, 2001).Such career officers normally derive their appointment from the civil service commission, which also exercises power of delegating duties and responsibilities to department in accordance with laid down rules. Today, the civil service has come to be regarded as modern institution bequeathed to mankind in the process of revolutionizing an efficient way of organizing any large human organization. It is in this respect that the civil service is defined as a bureaucracy (Ipinlaiye, 2001).
The civil service can also be seen as a complex organization with a body of seemingly permanent officials appointed in a capacity to assist the political executives in the formulation, execution and implementation of the government policies in Ministries and Extra-Ministerial Departments within which the specific government works are carried out.
Productivity
    Productivity is a measurement or calculation between input and outputs inputs are the amount of resources such as human resources, money, time, physical, technology and effort spent working in the organization, while output are the result. If the inputs are equivalent to the outputs, the worker is considered productive (Ikeanyibe, 2009:54).
    Furthermore, according to Onah (2010:172), productivity is the relationship between output of goods and services and input of resources, and human, used in the production process. In order words, productivity is the ratio of output to input. The higher the numerical value of this ratio, the greater the productivity.
The least controversial definition of productivity is that it is a quantitative relationship between output and input (Antle and Capalbo, 1988:71). This definition enjoys general acceptability because of two related considerations. One, the definition suggests what productivity is thought of to be in the context of an enterprise, an industry or an economy as a whole. Two, regardless of the type of production, economic or political system, this definition of productivity remains the same as long as the basic concept is the relationship between the quantity and quality of goods and services produced and the quantity of resources used to produce them (Prokopenko, 1987:45).
Eatwell and Newman (1991:44) defined productivity as a ratio of some measure of
output to some index of input use. Put differently, productivity is nothing more than the arithmetic ratio between the amount produced and the amount of any resources used in the course of production. This conception of productivity goes to imply that it can indeed be perceived as the output per unit input or the efficiency with which resources are utilized (Samuelson and Nordhaus, 1995:78).
It is evident in the literature on productivity that almost all the definitions of productivity centre on ‘outputs’ and ‘inputs’. Unfortunately, definition of either output or input or both may sometimes pose more difficulty to the understanding of what productivity is. For output, it is in the form of goods if visible and services if invisible. Input on the other hand is less easily defined.
Finally, Olaoye (2009:76) observed that productivity as a concept can assume two dimensions: namely total factor productivity (TFP) and partial productivity. The former relates to productivity that is defined as the relationship between output produced and an index of composite inputs; meaning the sum of all the inputs of basic resources notably labour, capital goods and natural resources.

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY IN EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE: A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE

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Details

Type Project
Department Public Administration
Project ID PUB0505
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 83 Pages
Methodology Chi Square
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Public Administration
    Project ID PUB0505
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 83 Pages
    Methodology Chi Square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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