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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME: CASE STUDY IKPOBA-OKHA’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:100
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Political Science Project Topics & Materials)
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME: CASE STUDY IKPOBA-OKHA’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
    The problem of poverty is not only a national thing but a global issue that has lingered for centuries. This issue has featured in the agenda of various international and national/local seminars and conferences. Poverty by all ramifications as an ugly situation and a concept used to describe the condition of a class of people who lack the means satisfying their physical, social and domestic needs e.g food, water, shelter, clothing, school fees, hospital bills etc.
    This multifaceted concept “poverty” is one that transcends geographical boundaries, it is seen in urban as well as rural areas, it has no nationality as it appears at varying degrees in the countries called developed and less developed countries today. Poverty is a generic term and has been so since attempts to classify it by different scholars. By daily interaction among people however, it has become perspective and similarity and because it possesses some country features and characteristics, these features are evident in the people, suffering, hunger deprivation, degradation, lack of shelter, clothing, stigmatization and all other basic necessities of life needed for human.
    The United Nations High Commission for Human Rights sum up poverty as a human condition characterized by sustained or chronic deprivation of resources, capabilities, security and power necessary for enjoyment of adequate standard of living and civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights (the Observer, 1989).
    Poverty is a plague affecting people all over the world. It is dehumanizing by its very nature, denying the affected individuals. Poverty reduction or alleviation and eradication programmes in Nigeria which has been initiated and implemented has not been beneficial to the majority of the citizens. These previous efforts at poverty alleviation has either been non-committed or half bulked, done at face value to save heads from rolling at inquests into embezzlement or for electoral purposes, that no significant impact has been made by that policy (Ihunda, 2008).
    In the words of the former president of Nigeria “our democratic transition would lack both relevance and social significance if it does not translate into food, security, better health, better housing and general improvement into the quality of life for the ordinary Nigerian man or women. From the view of the former president the level of poverty is measure value for the success or failure of democracies. The level of poverty in Nigeria is particularly disturbing, giving a cause for concern in nation with abundance of resources, natural human and material, the poor still has a consumption or income level that falls below the barest minimum necessary to meet the basic needs in the locality where he finds himself.
    It has been note by Aghahowa and Atunaya that Nigeria despite her rich varieties of resources, human and material, continues to slide deeper into the pit of economic backwardness and poverty. This was further emphasized by Okonkwo re-echoing the UNDP’s 1996 Human Development Report, in which Nigeria’s ranting in the colonial human development index (GDP) remains low placing Nigeria at 137 out of 174 countries in 1997 and 133 out of 162 countries in 1998.
    In spite of this vivid picture of the poverty status of Nigeria it has been stressed by some critics that a desperate attempt at poverty alleviation, without research is not the answer. As the daily trust puts, it and I quote through poverty can be alleviated, it is not by sharing money as a political exercise or sponsoring of dubious programmes, whose real political purpose is ingratiation. The paper is also of opinion that poverty at individual and national level cannot be eradicated like polio or small pox ….
    Homby in his own opinion gives a dictionary definition of poverty simply as “a state of being poor or a state of socio-economic and political interiority.
1.1    IKPOBA-OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
    Ikpoba-Okha local government area was created on the 1st of October, 1996 by the General Sani Abacha administration. It has its administrative headquarters at Idogbo.
    Ikpoba-Okha local government area is located in the south-senatorial district of Edo state. It shares a common boundary with Oredo, Uhunwode and Orhionwon local government areas.
    It has a population of about 37,106 in the 2006 National population census of the federal republic of Nigeria. Ikpoba-Okha Local Government has Ten (10) political wards represented by 10 elected councilors and the chairman.
    Ikpoba-Okha local government consist of about 52 communities Obagie, Uhoho, Okha I, Oteha II, Ohagobi, Obe, Utte, Evbuomonowan, Obaretin, Obagie Nevbuosa, Uyemwedi, Obayantor, Evbuokpon, Iyanomon, Uhie, Ogheghe I, Ogheghe II, Egun,, Okhauseni, Okha Evbuogo, Oga, Utezi, Uwisan Uttesi, Obe, Egba, Obah, Obazugbon, Aviama, Umelu, Idogbo, Ulegun, Ukhiri I, Ukhiri II, Avbiakagba, Azagba, Ikpe, Okubere, Ayoki, Kolokolo, Ayamogbon, Abiala, Ologbo, Oghobaye, Ogbesun, Ohovbue, Urora Evbuomodu, Aduwawa, and Oregbeni.
    These villages/quarters are predominantly the Benin Ethnic group. The occupational structure of Ikpoba Okha local government reveals a predominantly farming trading, arts and crafts sustained economy.
    They live on staple food crops like yam, cassava, plantain, corn etc. and have other cash crops like oil palm, rubber and timber.
1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
    Available data has shown that the population of Nigeria has been rising at an alarming rate with a simultaneous reduction in the standard of living, which is an index for measurement poverty. The concept of low standard of living is one that embraces the economic well being of the people. The per capital national income is one that has continuously reduced the income production of Nigeria has reduced over time as her population increased, this has left the continuously declining income to be shared by the persistently growing population. (Iyoha) also buttresses this point in his observation of the fact that “Nigeria” Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in 2000 was 3.8% which was a fall from the 4.7% in 1991. With a continuous population growth rate of 2.5% and double digit inflation it means that the quality of life will continue to depreciate. According to IMF the national economy declined by 0.9% in the year 2002. Also the United Nations Development programme recently placed Nigeria as the 13th poorest nation in the world with 70% of the entire population living at $ or less per day (Ihunda), this means that what these individuals survive on does not exceed what a dollar can buy in the US.
    The attendant effect of this situation is the observable increasing level of poverty and the initiation and establishment of programmes has however made no impact on the reduction in the standard of living which is an index for measuring poverty. The resulting tension and social conflict are staring every body in the face. At the slightest provocation deprived citizen’s resort to violence and wanton destruction.
    It is to this direction that this work is channeled; attempting to understand the reason for the failures and the situation surrounding the implementation of poverty alleviation programmes especially the (NAPEP) programme of the then Obasanjo administration which is still in use in the present dispensation of DR. EBELE JONATHAN GOODLUCK.
1.3    OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
    The overall objective of this research is to examine poverty alleviation through the implementation of the National Alleviation of poverty and employment programme (NAPEP) using Ikpoba-Okha’s local government experience as a Guinea Pig” to test the effectiveness of this programme in the life of the citizens living in the area.
1)    The objective of the study embraces and emphasizes a cleaver understanding of the motives behind the initiation of poverty alleviation programme and to know the extent of impact it has on citizens and the success rate.
2)    This study is aimed at undertaking a critical appraisal of efforts and the contribution of other agencies at alleviating poverty in Nigeria.
3)    To ascertain the justification for the level of success recorded by this programme such that improvement can be made and to find out the possible strategies that could be adopted to make the programme more efficient and effective.
1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
    The local government is the closet government to the people, the level of its performance therefore affects the people and the effort of the other levels of government is complemented by a functional local government. Issues related to causes of poverty, implementation and evaluation of poverty alleviation programmes are still elusive and that is what this study attempts to clarify, such that the local government is properly positioned to manage poverty alleviation programme.
    The desire to fight and entrench development at the grassroots level is a propelling force to ensure the success of policy decisions.
1.5    SCOPE OF STUDY
    A lot of policies have been initiated and executed in this country for the purpose  of this research work the focus has been narrowed down to the implementation of the poverty. Alleviation programme (PAP) within the Ikpoba-Okha local government area of Edo state.
    Through, the research could not be said to be exhaustive, but it is expected that this project will help to throw some light on the importance of these poverty alleviation programmes in the societies of and developing or third world country.
1.6    HYPOTHESIS
    It guide the study with the use of questionnaires the following hypotheses have be formulated for testing and will hopefully provide the needed result.
1)    That there is a relationship between poor governance and poverty.
2)    Corruption in government is the bane of the poor implementation of the NAPEP programme in Ikpoba-Okha local government area.
3)    That there is a relationship between political instability and poverty alleviation programme implementation.
4)    The design and implementation of poverty alleviation scheme should be guided by the needs of the poor.
5)    Poor implementation of sound poverty alleviate is a hindrance to its success.
6)    Lack of administrative capability results in policy failure.
1.7    LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
    In government ministries and parastatals information that should normally be for public consumption and advantage are classified and tagged “secret” this was a major problem that affected the work.
    Hence this for bill being passed in the house of assembly, with this bill being made into law, freedom of information in Nigeria will now truly be a reality.
    Also lack of proper documentation and record keeping by the council and its staff was another major set back to this project. In spite of the above limitations it is hoped that the project will be a valuable contribute to the success of poverty alleviation research and policy implementation accordingly.
1.8    DEFINITION OF TERMS
    In this section an attempt will be made to define some related terminologies that will occur in this research work and clarify these terms, as they will be used in specific context within the study.
    The concept of “poverty’ which is the main thrust of this work has different dimensions and perceptions in other words different  ways, some perceive it to be relative to mental or attitudinal problems to some yet, it is looked at as a reflector of the level of economic development.
Poverty. Is a living condition in which an entity or individual is faced with economic, social, political, psychological and environmental deprivation.
Poverty: Is a concept is devoid of any generalized definition or geographical location. It is however globally seen as an undesirable state of being. It is seen as a state of financial distress human enslavement, a factor that roles any individual of self respect, and confidence in himself. Poverty can also be a force that contends with Noble Aspirations.
Alleviation: This is synonymous with reducing or helping to cushion the effects of any social problems bringing it to t he barest minimum.
Programmes: These are strategies or group of actions taken to checkmate the effect of any social problem which in this case is poverty. In this context these are strategies or steps designed to help reduce poverty within a system.
Policy: Is a statement that gives direction to the decision of government. Government decisions are built around the decided policies.
1.9    ORGANISATION OF STUDY
    This research work is a survey research; the project work is divided into five chapters, each chapter covering a different section of the research report.
    Chapter one covers introduction, a brief history of the local government, statement of problem, objectives, significance and scope of the study. It also reflects the hypothesis formulated for the study, problems encountered in the course of the research and definition of terms.
    Chapter two is an exploration of existing literature on the subject matter, theoretical framework and the issues, problems and prospects of poverty alleviation in the local government.
    Chapter three covers research methodology, research design, population of study, sample size and sampling technique, data collection and instruments, questionnaire interview observation, data presentation and analysis technique.
    Chapter four covers presentation of data and its analysis, discussions of findings  and testing of hypothesis. The last chapter covers the summary, discussions and recommendations.
    After every chapter of this work references and a general bibliography given at the end of chapter five.
REFERENCES
Observer, Fighting ‘poverty’ Thursday June 16, 2005, p. 4.
Ihunda, C.C.  “impact of presidents Obasanjo’s Poverty Alleviation
programme on Nigeria ‘s the enterprise, Vol. 6, No. 3 ABA NIRECAD publications, 2005, p. 20.   
Olusegun Obasanjo NAPEP Retreat at Abuja, 23, June, 2001.
Aghahowa, J.O.  and Atanaya E. I.  “Elitism in  Nigeria politics.
Political Bureaucratic, Military, Economic and Traditional”. R.F Ola (ed.) Nigerian political system, inputs, outputs and environment, Benin Ambik press, 1995, p. 445.
Okonkwo, C., Nigeria’s poverty amidst plenty “The way out”.
    National Concord Lagos, November 10, 1998, p. 12.
Daily Trust Nigeria, can we abolish poverty” October 9, 2003.
  Hornby, A.S., “Advanced Oxford Learners Dictionary of current
    English, p. 652.
Iyoha, M.A.,  When will Africa’s  sleeping giant awake: Inaugural
    lecture series 75 Benin. Uniben Press, May 19, 2005.

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME: CASE STUDY IKPOBA-OKHA’S LOCAL GOVERNMENT

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Type Project
Department Political Science
Project ID POL0367
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 100 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Political Science
    Project ID POL0367
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 100 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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