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CONFLICT PREVENTION MECHANISM IN NIGER DELTA: THE ROLE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:77
  • Methodology:Chi Square
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Political Science Project Topics & Materials)
CONFLICT PREVENTION MECHANISM IN NIGER DELTA: THE ROLE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
ABSTRACT

    This study was carried out to examine the extent to which sustainable development can help resolve crisis/conflict in the Niger Delta region. It also sought to know the major problems which result in conflict whether crisis is location specific.
    A total number of one hundred and twenty respondents were proportionately randomly selected from the three most crisis – prone local government areas out of the seven local government that were covered in the study.
    A research instrument titled Conflict Appraisal Questionnaire (CAQ) was used to collect data for the study. The data generate were analysed using test and chi-square. Four hypotheses were tested at 0.5 level of significance.
    There was significant relationship between economic growth and access to health, education and other element of social well-being. It was also found that there exist a significant relationship between development indicators and an absence of crisis. And also that there was significant differences in the occurrence of crisis between urban and rural areas.
    Based on the findings. The researcher recommended that there should be participatory approach to the governance and the developmental activities geared towards ameliorating the plight of the Niger-Deltans. Adherence to the comprehensive master plan of reducing the conflict in the Niger-Delta. The federal and state government should pay adequate attention to the development of the area. Orientation of ethnic group by the NGO massive value re-orientation of community leaders. And that a government should focus on other revenue generation sources rather than depending on oil as the only source of revenue.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY
    It is viewed that conflicts are inherently negative and destructive in the literature, conflict is associated with situation of actual or imminent violence. The assumption that conflict is necessarily negative, is  understandable given the destructive nature of violent conflicts.
    One of the quoted traditional definitions of conflict according to Closer (1956:8) regards it as “a struggle over value and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponent are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals” therefore conflict may be conceptualized as a way of settling problems originally from opposing interests and for the continuity of society.
    According to Park & Burgess (1921:54) “conflict is designed to resolve divergent dualism (and achieve) some kind of unity even if it be through the annihilation of one of the conflict parties. Consequently, Sandole (1993:6) is of the opinion that conflict is a dynamic phenomenon which consists of five stages initiation, escalation, controlled, maintenance, abatement and/resolution. It is evident that global system today is taught with pocket conflict the truth is that social and political conflict is natural in all societies.
    There are numerous source of conflict Reitz (1977) classified them into four factors, personal, interdependence differences in goals and difference in perceptions. Walton and Dutton (1969) further categorizes them into two (2) broad ways namely, non-structural and structural factors. By non-structural factors we mean sources of conflict within the organization that are not a consequence of the design or the organization. While the structural sources refer to the formally defined framework or task and authority relationships. The view of Meenakshi Raman (2003) of the south is primarily a result of the inequitable world order (conflict) unsustainable development model these urge us that for development option to be considered sustainable, nation states at the periphery of conflict should pot for a positive process where the search for solutions will lead issue and trying to understand the global and future implications.
    Since the conference on the growth of nation states in order to promote productivity, industrial peace, and stable fruitful activities in government or public and private sectors of the political economy, in structural arrangement are provided to reduce or manage conflicts ensuring between individuals, occupational groups, political economic associations and unions,  contesting divergent views and goals.
    Sustainable development was meant to mean that “development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need”. This concept of sustainable development has stimulated people to take a close look at the lines between the development, economic and environmental crisis that has become further complicated by numerous conflicts around the zone. The prerequisite for sustainable development has become peace, democracy, human eights, equity efficient use of energy resources, local community involvement, and fair distribution of wealth and participation of all sectors in south-south geographical zone of Nigeria calls for a multi-dimensional approach of sustainable development indicators to finding option for the prevention of seeming keg of (gunpowder). All embracing sustainable strategy can provide the policy-makers and practitioner with a set of consist teems to plan and carry out effective prevention strategy for conflict prevention.
    Effective responses to violent conflict requires matching appropriate tools to the circumstances and division and implementing multi-tooled, place – specific strategies. In the Niger Delta, the policy tools should be applied in effective combination which should also be proactive aiming at both conflict prevention and peace building.
1.2    STATEMENT OIF THE PROBLEM
    Niger-Delta crisis has been caused by lack of social development, lack of equity, portable water, poor transportation facilities and lack of education even at the grass root level. Since these are the perceived grievances that have resulted in different levels of crisis in the Niger Delta, particularly in the Delta State. This study seeks to find out if sustainable development could be a possible strategy for preventing crisis. The question is which of these indicators of development would best do the job, if all the indicators could assist in conflict prevention; how would they be accessed in order to effectiveness? Are these solutions location specific? (Urban/Rural areas).
1.3    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    The following research questions were generated to resolve the problems raised in the proceeding paragraph.
1.    What relationship exists between under-development and tension conflict degeneration?
2.    Is there any relationship between economic growth and equitable  health education?
3.    Do integrated environment policies have any effect on sustainable development?
1.4    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The main aim of this study is to access the option of sustainable development as a strategy for conflict prevention in the Niger-Delta region with Delta state as a case study, the specific objectives therefore include.
1.    To determine whether sustainable development can reduce or even eliminate crisis in the Niger Delta region.
2.    To identify the major problems, which result in conflict.
3.    Whether crisis is location specific  (rural or urban)
1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
    For this study, the following hypotheses were tested.
1.    There is no significant relationship between underdevelopment and conflict.
2.    There is no significant relationship between economic growth and access to health, education and other elements of social well being.
3.    There is no significant relationship between development indicators and an absence of crisis.  
4.    There is no significant difference between occurrence of crisis between urban and rural areas.  
1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
    The frequent occurrence of crisis in the Niger Delta Region calls for concern and proper understanding of development. Frank and D.L Johnson (1972) perceive development as “the coincidence of structural change and liberation of men from exploitation and oppression perpetuated by international capitalist bourgeoisie and their internal collaborator” Real development involves politics and culture of the state that permits the self – generating and self- perpetuating use and development of the people’s potentials Frank and D.L. Johnson (1972).
    Consequently, this study will highlight issues from which conflicts arises in Delta State. These findings will be generalized toe the whole of the Niger-Delta. Research may also reveal the degree of effectiveness of development indicators in conflict prevention. These findings could be of great importance to policy makers, community leaders and stakeholders involved in peace building in the region.
1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Political speaking, the Niger – Delta region comprises nine (9) states, namely: Delta, Bayelsa, River, Cross River, Ondo and Edo. Others are Akwa Ibom, Abia and Imo State. Though the study is limited to Delta State; this study is limited to the area where they have experienced conflict/crisis. Oil being the major causes of crisis in Delta State, sustainable development will serve as a tool for conflict prevention.
    The development indicators also will be limited to either primary or secondary.
1.8    LIMITATIONS
    The following limitations were observed during the study;
1.    Respondents were wary of being included in the study due to the political nature of the crisis.
2.    The state-wide administration of the instruments required time, efforts and high level of funding. The issue is a social construct measured according to individual values and biases. Since there are no clear cut criteria for crisis measurement observed measure of it are subjective.
3.    The sample subjects were widely scattered over the state. It was therefore not possible to use interview to compensate for the inflexibility of the questionnaires.
4.    The geographical dispensation of the sample made it difficult for the researcher to personally observe the presence or lack of development indicators rate.
REFERENCES
Lewis A. Closer the function of social conflict, (1956).
Park R.E, & Burgess E.W (1921). Introduction to the science of
sociology. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago press (project Gutenberg).
Sandole and H. VAndermerwe (eds), conflicts Resolution
theory and practice. Integration and application Manchester University Press.
European Journal of Business and Management ISSN 2222 –
    1905 (paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (online) vol.6, No.22, 2014.
R.E Walton and J.M. Dutton (1969) managing conflicts in an
    organization.

CONFLICT PREVENTION MECHANISM IN NIGER DELTA: THE ROLE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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Details

Type Project
Department Political Science
Project ID POL0366
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 77 Pages
Methodology Chi Square
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Political Science
    Project ID POL0366
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 77 Pages
    Methodology Chi Square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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