EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND ITS BANDWAGON EFFECTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES, A SURVEY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN ABSTRACT
This research focuses on examination malpractice in Nigerian Universities, with particular interest in the University of Benin, Benin City. It is unfortunate that the rate of examination cheats have continued to increase over the years which is an indication of the growing desperation of students to pass their examination at all cost in order to progress in their educational pursuits. It must be noted that this is a reflection of the general decadence in the Nigerian society and a sad reminder of our wrong value system. Other reasons for sharp increase of examination malpractice ranges from low moral standard in schools, students fear of failure, lack of confidence in themselves, inadequate preparation, laziness and “419” syndrome that have eaten deep into the life of the society, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, poor conditions of service for academic and non-academic staff, admission of unqualified candidates into the universities just mention but few. The objective of this study is to improve on examination in our universities by studying the stakeholder in carry out examination in the universities. The methodology used in as follows-stratified sampling technique was use for selection of faculties/departments, the simple random technique was also used to sampled 100 respondents from the faculties/department. The research is mainly a survey, therefore the major tool for data collection was questionnaire which was put into tables in respect of responses, frequency and simple percentage. The findings were as follows. Examination malpractice is on the increase because students trying to pass examination malpractice in our courts there is non-implementation of existing legislation by government/agencies. The researcher hence, recommend that government should pay more allowance to both academic and non-academic of universities. Also expedite action in all cases relating to examination malpractice as well as work on the student to have attitudinal change towards the value system and acquire skills that will be of help toward self employment.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of The Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of Study
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Limitation of The Study
1.6 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Types of Examination
2.3 Brief History of University of Benin
2.4 Examination Malpractices
2.5 Types of Examination Malpractice
2.6 Reason for Examination Malpractice
2.7 Dangers/Consequences of Examination
2.8 Ways of Managing Examination Malpractice
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample Size
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Data Collection Tools
3.6 Administration of Materials
3.7 Data Analyses Method
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Data Analyses and Interpretation
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, RECOMMEDATION AND CONCLUSION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria, the last two decades have witnessed an alarming rate of increase in incidents of examination malpractices at all level of educational sector.
It is unfortunate that the ranks of examination cheats have continued to increase over the years which is an indication of the growing desperation of pass their examinations at all costs in order to progress in their educational pursuits. It must be noted that this is a shameful reflection of the general decadence in the Nigerian society and a sad reminder of our wimped value system. Even more derogatory unfortunate is the realization that examinations frauds are aided and abetted by those charged with the responsibility of inculcating the right moral standards in our students by ensuring a hitch free and fair conduct of examination. (Imolorhe, D. 1998:120).
One of the objectives of education in Nigeria is to prepare the young ones to face future challenges and develop them to meet the nations manpower requirements. Examination is the process through which students are evaluated or tested, to find out the quality/quantity of knowledge acquired within a specified period (Imolorhe D.O. 1998: 119).
Examinations are conducted in Universities as Yardstick for assessment. It is the most practical way of assessment in education. It also the process through which students are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specified period. (Balogun, 1999:3). Examination as a formal test of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular subject, especially by means of answering questions or practical exercise. (Hornby, 1995:504). (Urevbu, 1984:109) said that the uses and purpose of examination in our society are numerous and varied perhaps the most important ones are for:
- Evaluation of scholastic achievement for promotions, certification and employment.
- Selection into new institutions, prediction and guidance.
- Instructional and motivational aids.
- Evaluation of teaching effectiveness, aid to curriculum planning.
What ever it is, examination is vital to our educational sector being the only method of assessment of performance of a particular group toward a targeted goal.
On the other hand, examination malpractice is any wrong doing before, during or after any examination. Examination malpractice tends to relegate certificates issued at different levels of education (Ivowi, 1997:45).
Fagbemi 1998:30 citing the Decree 20 of (1984) states that examination malpractices is “any person who fraudulently or within tent to cheat or secure any unfair advantages to himself or any other person or in abuse of his office, produces, sells or buys or otherwise deals with any questions paper intended for the examination of persons at any examination or commit any of the offences specified in section 3(2.7) © of the this Decree, shall be guilty of an offences and on convicted be sentenced to 21 years imprisonment.
However, examination malpractice Act 33 of 1999 revised the above decree but now stipulates punishment ranging from a fine of N50,000 to N100,000 and imprisonment for a term of 3 – 4 years with or without options of fine.
Inspite of all these laws or legislations, examination malpractice has been on the increase and this may be due to non-implementation of the existing laws. Other reasons for the sharp increase of examination malpractice ranges from low moral standard in schools, student fear of failure, lack of confidence in themselves, inadequate preparation, laziness and “419” syndrome that have eaten deep into the life of society, inadequate teaching and learning facilities, poor conditions of service for academic and non-academic staff, admission of unqualified candidates into the universities just to mention but few. Against this background, this study hopes to examine why examination malpractices can be eradicated or eliminated from our tertiary institutions particularly our universities.
This research further intends to look at the involvement of students as well as academic and non-academic staff in the menace of examination malpractices. Hence, examination malpractice and its bandwagon effects in Nigeria Universities, a survey of the University of Benin is not effort of these pandemonium because students has adopt diverse means of the menace of examination malpractice. It cuts across colleges, faculties, department in the University that students are caught in the act of examination malpractice in every examinations.
The study area is in Examination Malpractice in Nigeria Universities with particular interest in the University of Benin, Benin City.
The educational sector has bedeviled with the wrong doing on examinations because student quest for passing examination without working hard as well as staff interest for monetary reward. University of Benin is not left out of these.
The University of Benin was founded in 1970. It started as an institute of technology and was accorded the status of a full fledged University by National University Commission (NUC) on 1st July, 1971.
On 1st April, 1975 the University at request of the state government, was taken over by the Federal Government and become a Federal University. (Uniben Brochure, 1993:17).
Since then the University has been providing manpower requirement for both the state and the Federal Government as well as the private sector.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The process of examination in Nigeria Universities has become a contemporary shame. This is because of the issues of examination malpractices that has become epidemic in the educational system.
The examination malpractice Act (1999) explain examination malpractices as “any act of omission or commission by a person who in anticipation of, before, during or after any examination fraudulently secure any unfair advantage for himself or any other person in such a manner that contravenes the rules and regulations of the extent of undermining the validity, reliability, authenticity of the examination and ultimately the integrity of the certificates issued”. (The examination malpractice Act, 1999:1).
Examination in Universities are faced with challenges of examination malpractices, and University of Benin is not left out, these problems emanated due to insincere implementation of existing legislations by the academic and non-academic staff of Universities, emphasis on certificates and paper qualification, non-improvement on finding of the educational sector etc just to mention but few, why?
Inspite of all measures put in place to curb examination malpractice; it is on the increase day in, day out, year in, year out. With the avert of technological improvement, these further aid the culprits of examination malpractices. (Odili, 2002:191).
Students now use G.S.M or mobile phones, memorizing calculators, 1-pad for examination malpractices. Also inspite of the legislation that are in existing like the decree 20 of 1984 which was later repeal by examination malpractice Act of 1999, examination malpractice still go alarming, why?
There is improvement on motivational factors to academic and non-academic staff of the universities but the problem of examination malpractice still persist, why?
This research tends to look at the possibilities of eliminating or eradicating examination malpractice and its effect in the Nigeria universities as well as Nigerian economy in general.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study tends to assess the way of improvement on examinations, in our universities as it is the only and main assessment/evaluation measures to student performance.
The specific objectives are to:
a) Examine and analyzed examination malpractice in our universities in relation to students involvement.
b) Identify the main causes of examination malpractices in our Universities.
c) Examine the extent of students/staff relationship in terms of examination malpractice as well as implementation of existing legislations.
d) There is relationship between student getting out of the University by all means and examination malpractices.
e) Non implementation of the existing legislation to the later by the government and its agencies enhances examination malpractice.
f) The cordial relationship between staff/students in the University enhances examination malpractices.
g) Non-improvement on staff welfare by the University authority increases examination malpractices.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is on examination malpractices and its bandwagon effects in Nigeria Universities, a survey of the University of Benin.
These means the study intends to cover the entire University of Benin in regards to the different faculties within 2007-2011. And sampling of respondent will be done from selected faculties/departments.
Such respondents will be used for the research/survey of which inference will drawn for the entire University Community.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A research work like this will encounter challenges ranging from gathering of data/information from with students/staff because the survey is within the community of the University of Benin where the researcher is also a student.
Also enough time and logistic in terms of money will be required being the research a part-time student put this work together cumbersome, also enough resources will be required to cover the entire community of the University of Benin.
Since the study covers, University of Benin with large population of both students and staff which can not be easily covered by the researcher, necessary arrangement was done to use the right sampling technique to sample a size which can be conveniently covered by the researcher. Hence, the researcher looked into the existing faculties and by using stratified sampling technique a sample of five (5) faculties will be done, and from the facilities department each were selected of which a sampling technique. A sample of 100 respondents was made.
Collection of data was through personal interview with key officials of the selected faculties/department of the University, a questionnaire was done to cover the key uses as well as the entire respondents.
Data analyses was by extraction of information from the questionnaire, which will be put into tables in relation with responses, frequency and simple percentage. This tables was analyzed to drawn conclusion as well as test the hypotheses.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Examination – Examination is a formal written, spoken or practical test, especially at school or college to see how much a person know about a subject or what a person can do with the skills acquired for a specified period. (Hornby, 1995:504).
In this research work refers is made to examinations conducted in the Universities as a yardstick for assessment in semesters test. It is the most practical way of assessment in education. Also it is an evaluation of scholastic achievement for certification at the end of the course. (Balogun, 1999:4).
Examination Malpractice – Examination malpractice is any irregular behavior exhibited by a candidate or anybody charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination that contravenes the rules and regulations governing the conduct of such examination (Hornby A.S, 1995:895).
Legislations – Legislations is a law or set of laws passed by a parliament that is governing a body or set of bodies. (Hornby 1995:844). In this research legislation means the laws rules and regulations set by the government, agencies etc that is governing their examination, example are like the Decree 20 of 1984 or the repeal examination malpractice Act of 1999. This rule states the offences and punishment accrued to an offender of examination malpractice.
Bandwagon Effects – Is two words put together to form a single word.
Bad means something or some one that is not pleasant or enjoyable, or likely to cause major problems or of low quality.
Wagon is a vehicle with four wheels that is usually pulled by horses or used for carrying load etc (Hornby, 1995; 95).
In this research, bad wagon effects mean the likely cause major problem in a chain reaction that reoccur yearly.
Certificates - Certificate is an official document proving that you have completed a course of study or passed a examination. It can also be an official document stating that you have passed an examination successfully, complete a course, or achieved the necessary qualifications to work in a particular profession. (Hornby, 1995:203).
Since this research discusses examination malpractices, certification therefore, look at the wordiness of our certificate in an atmosphere of examination malpractices. (Hornby 1995).
Assessment – Is the process of making a judgement or forming an opinion, after considering something or someone carefully. It means examination assess, the student weather they have carefully passed the examination, or evaluate the mode and medium of their performances during, and after the examination. (Hornby, 1995:75).
Imolorhe, D.O. (1998), Adverse Effects of Examination
Malpractice in Tertiary Institutions, in Oriaifo & Olubor, Advances in the Field of Education. The Nigerian Experience, Benin Institute of Education.
Balogun, J.O. (1995), Towards Minimizing Examination
Misconducts. In the Nigeria School System: A Paper Presented at the Educational Seminar on towards improving the qualities of education in Nigeria Federal College’s of Education.
Hornby, A.S. (1995) Advance Oxford Learner Dictionary of
Current English, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Urevbu, A.O. (1984), New Principle and Practice of Education
in Nigeria, with Emphasis on the National Policy on Education, United Kingdom: Juland Publishers.
Ivowi, U.M.O. (1997) Examination Malpractice, Profiles,
Causes, Warning Signs, Case Studies, Prevention and Detention Strategies in Onyechere, Promoting Examination, Lagos; Potomac Books.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999) Examination Malpractice
Act, Government Press.
Odili, J.N (2002), Refocusing Education for Reduced Class
Differentiation Bodies and Test Writers, Benin City; Da-Sylva Influence.
EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND ITS BANDWAGON EFFECTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES, A SURVEY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN
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