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THE EFFECT OF EUROPEANS (COLONIALISTS) ON THE OVAH PEOPLES

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:60
  • Methodology:Primary and Secondary data
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Philosophy Project Topics & Materials)
THE EFFECT OF EUROPEANS (COLONIALISTS) ON THE OVAH PEOPLES
BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.1    Introduction
To live without conflicts is not to exist. The culture of conflict is universal and noticeable in every society. In so far as there are conflicting interests and divergent ideas even in relation to the same issues.Conflicts therefore is inevitable, wherever incompatible activities occur.
Historically, peoples of various cultures have co-operated and have disagreed over matters as it affects their interest. They have resolved to a variety of conflict resolution methods in different situations including negotiations,conciliation,mediation, and facilitation.1Conflict and conflict resolution by this means.
A clash or disagreement, often violent, between two opposing groups or individuals, and by conflict resolution means “intervention aimed at alleviating or eliminating discord through conciliation.2
The origin of conflict is difficult to trace, which in turn has led to a number of complex interpretations of history. Within these simple definitions there are several important understanding that emerged.
Disagreement- Generally, we are aware there is some level of difference in the positions of the two or more parties involved in the conflict. But the true disagreement versus the perceived disagreement may be quite different from one another. Infact, conflict tends to be accompanied by significant levels of misunderstanding that exaggerate the perceived agreement considerably. If we can understand the true areas of agreement this will helps us solve the right problems and manage the true needs of the parties.
Parties involved- There are often disparities in our sense of who is involved in the conflict. Sometimes, people are surprised to learn that they are a party to the conflict, while other times we are shocked to learn we are not included in the disagreement. On many occasions, people who are seen as part of the social system (e.g team, family, and company) are influenced to participate in the dispute, whether they would personally define the situation in that way or not. In the above example, people very readily take sides. Based upon current perceptions of issues and relationships, roles within the organization and other factors. The parties involved can become an elusive concept to define.
Perceived threat- People respond to the perceived threat, rather than the time threat, facing them, thus, while perception does not become reality per se, peoples behaviors, feelings and ongoing responses become modified by that evolving sense of the threat they confront. If we can work to understand the time threat (issues) and develop strategies (solutions) that manage it (agreement), we are acting constructively to manage the conflict.
Needs, interests or concerns- There is a tendency to narrowly define “the problem” as one of substance, task and near-term viability. However, workplace conflicts tend to be far more complex than that for they involve ongoing relationships with complex emotional components simply, there are always procedural needs and psychological needs to be addressed within the conflict, in additions to the substantive needs that are generally presented. And the durability of the interest and concerns of the parties transcends the immediate presenting situation. Any efforts to resolve conflicts effectively must take these points into account.3
Conflicts in pre-colonial Ovah community, like every society in Benin is focused on the role of individuals, groups in the promotion, resolution and sustaining of conflict and peace.Individuals and groups who engage in conflict are also some institutions who attempt to resolve them.4
As in most pre-colonial African societies, therewere bound to be conflicts among individuals and communities but there also existed traditional methods by which they were resolved to ensure that peace and order were achieved and maintained in the society. It however hopes that the lessons to be learnt from the findings of this paper, if properly applied, would be of great benefit to those who are charged with the responsibilities to the various intra and inter-ethnic as well as sectarian crisis presently ravaging various parts of Nigeria and the African continent in general. A case study of the Ovah community.5
Though conflict is perceived as contra-society and destructive, it is necessary for social change. It may infact be the product of social change just as it may help produce change. Similarly, internal conflicts may be positively functional and may produce unity in a society, depending on the type of issues at stake, that is, if issue are not fundamentally opposed to the basic norms and values on which relations are based.6
In describing the context to any conflict in traditional Africa, land is perhaps the most commonly cited cause of conflict, this disputes could be between individuals, communities, or families. Land is highly priced and people are willing against all odds, to defend and protect a piece of an ancestors land. In simple societies Africa, a case study of the Ovah. Sorcery and witchcraft are practices which cause death and threaten to diminish and destroy the social group, and which society itself has come to perceive with fear and suspicion. Sorcery and witchcraft and trials stir up discontent, and they are veritable sources of conflict.
Sexual offences such as adultery incest and rape are also veritable sources as of conflict in indigenous Africa. In traditional African societies, a clear cut distinction is drawn between rape and adultery, and in each case, there are clear cut defined punishment for offenders.7
Succession, as in many kingdoms which later sprang up within the fringes of the Ancient kingdom of Benin. This has often led to political and social strife with people migrating to establish new kingdoms. In cases where succession to kingship was opened to all bonafide members of the community, and where leadership did not descend from father to son in immediate succession as in the case of the Ovah community where the Odionwere is chosen by age, i.e. the oldest wears the crown, may lay open the succession process to conflict between contending parties and individuals.8
What makes a society an ideal polity is the extent to which conflicting interests and needs in that society are constructively managed so that violence does not threaten its continued existence. For many African indigenous societies oath taking is a veritable tool of conflict and conflict resolutions. As noted by Gluckman, the objective of the traditional  African courts are to right wrong, adjust claims, defend norms, and prevent good relations from being broken.9
In conclusion, the chapter introduced the nature of conflict, the causes and some measures in resolving them in pre-colonial Africa, a case study of Ovah community. So that if one reads the first chapter, understanding of the chapters that follows will not be difficult.
1.2    Aims and Objectives
This study seeks to achieve the following aims and objectives.
1.    To examine the concepts and dimensions of conflict resolution.
2.    To examine the historical origin and background of the Ovah peoples.
3.    To examine the socio-cultural, and political organization of the Ovah people.
4.    Analyze traditional methods of conflict resolution in pro-colonial Ovah community
5.    Conclusions.
1.3    Scope of Study
This study covers the period from the early times up till the period before the first contact of the Ovah peoples with Europeans (colonialists). This study covers conflict resolutions in pre-colonial Ovah community; it would also cover the origin, background, socio-cultural, political organization of the Ovah people, it will give comparative analysis of the traditional methods of conflict resolution, and hope to reach a middle where we could conclude that the traditional methods of conflict resolution if implemented today, in the present day, it could help the rather waning society from total collapse.
1.4    Literature Review:
Research from the existing literatures on conflict resolutions in Nigeria shows that there are no work on pre-colonial Ovah community per se. Hence a resort to oral interview. There are however books with regard to African society of which ovah is a constitute. Books adopted in the course of this research work included;
Isaac O. Albert in his book titled, informal channels for conflicts resolutions in Ibadan, 10which contributes to the traditional methods of peace keeping methods in African societies. In his book, he emphasized on the need to adopt policies which was geared towards social integration, discourage ethnicism, and individualism. He focused on the Ibadan town, among the Yoruba group, but his work is very relevant to this work, as social crisis in traditional African states were almost the same.
Francisca AkunnaEzenkwo, M.I.H.D, and Joseph InegbenebhoOsagie,P.H.D in the article titled “conflict and conflict resolution in pre-colonial Igbo society of Nigeria”,11 the book introduces us to what conflict is, its manifestation, and how it is resolved in a traditional African Society it gave us a very good base to what conflict and conflict resolution entails in this research work, and ways it was resolved using a case study of an African Society.
BjarneVestergaard “et. al”, in the book titled “conflict resolution-working about various ways of working with and within conflict”12 in the book the writers wrote about various ways of working with and within conflict. It introduced us to various dimensions of conflict resolution, and also they shared various experiences, across cultural borders, explore differences, understand other discourses and learn from conflict resolution, in other Social contexts. This work serves as a secondary reliable source for this research work.
Peace studies and conflict Resolution, as edited by E.O.S Iyamu and Lilian.I. Salami, the book addressed the dimensions of conflict, and some concepts to understanding conflict Resolution: This work was very relevant in the writing of a chapter in this research work.
Max Glauckman, in his book titled “politics and Rituals in Tribal Society”13 he viewed conflict as inevitable, and that traditions and rituals were the natural way that societies preserved themselves. His analysis further indicated that through understanding each other, human beings could come to develop common traditions and methods of overcoming traditions and conflict. This work also serves as a reliable secondary source in this research project.
J.U. Egharevba, in his book titled “A Short History of Benin”14, he introduced us to the ascension of Oba Esigie, how he clashed with his brother Arhuaran, he talked about how the two brothers clashed over the Benin throne (Ekete) and in consequence the Ovah community was established. This book talked about the battles fought, sometimes one side being the victorious and the other was victorious some other times. This book was of great importance in this research work.
1.5    Methodology
In the process of carrying out this research study, relevant and essential data and materials will be collected and gathered from two main sources, the primary and secondary sources.
According to Ajetunmobi (2009) historical research methodology has documentary values of the local achievement and challenges faced by the people.
Oral traditions will be used mostly as the primary source, while textbooks and the internet would constitute the secondary sources. The oral interviews would be conducted among the elderly in Ovah community. The language used is Edo language and was later translated into English and cross-checked to ascertain their level of objectivity.
END NOTES
1.    AworomAnnang, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Indigenous Africa”. African Journal of Culture, Philosophy and Society. Vol 2, no.1 (2012): p.1
2.    Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary, Fifth Edition, 2006.
3.    Godwin .O. Igbinoba, “Conflict Issues and the Basic Assumptions: the Nigeria Experience” in E.O.S Iyamu and Lilian .I.  Salami (eds.), Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution, Benin: OtoghaguaEnt. 2011, pp. 1-2.
4.    Francisca AkunnaEzenkwo and Joseph InegbenebheOsagie, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Pre-colonial Igbo Society of Nigeria. “Journal of Studies in Social Sciences Vol 9, no.1 (2014):p.135.
5.    Ibid.
6.    M. Glauckman, The JudicialProcess. Among the Berotse Northern Rhodesia: Manchester university press, 1955),p.12
7.    AworomAnnang
8.    Ibid.
9.    Ibid.
10.    Isaac .O. Albert “et al”, Informal Channels for Conflict Resolution in Ibadan Nigeria (Ibadan: African Book Builders, 1995).
11.    Francisca AkunnaEzenkwo and Joseph InegbenebhoOsagie.
12.    BjarneVestergaard, Erik Helvard and AaseRieck Sorensen, Conflict Resolution-Working Conflict (Denmark: Danish Center for Conflict Resolution, 2000).
13.    M. Gluckman.
14.    J.U. Egherevba, “A Short History of Benin” (Ibadan; Ibadan University Press, 1968).

THE EFFECT OF EUROPEANS (COLONIALISTS) ON THE OVAH PEOPLES

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Type Project
Department Philosophy
Project ID PHI0151
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 60 Pages
Methodology Primary and Secondary data
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Philosophy
    Project ID PHI0151
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 60 Pages
    Methodology Primary and Secondary data
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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