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CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN PRE- COLONIAL BENIN AND THE MODES USED IN RESOLVING THESE CONFLICTS

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:67
  • Methodology:Descriptive
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(History Project Topics & Materials)
CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN PRE- COLONIAL BENIN AND THE MODES USED IN RESOLVING THESE CONFLICTS
CHAPTER ONE

Introduction and Background of Study
    Conflicts are generally accepted to be inevitable phenomenon in the lives of men. It cannot be completely separated from inter-relationships that exist among individuals and communities. Conflicts is therefore a natural occurrence among human beings whenever people gather together in the family or social and political groups there are bound to be conflicts which according to Alagoe, could lead to “struggle of various level of intensity, extending to violent combat which could lead to the destruction of the group”.1
    Pre- colonial African societies are reputed to hold secrets of peacemaking and conflict resolution embedded in their customs and traditions before the disruptive activities bough about by colonization. The pre-colonial Benin societies had well defined social political institutions that helped to facilitate conflict resolution. Like every great nation or society of such a state, is usually not an easy birth. The Brith of the Benin kingdom which become one of the great empires of the world at her peak of success had a humble beginning with Igodo who become the father as it were and the first Ogiso, king of Benin Kingdom. Igodo died after a long reign and was succeeded by his grandson Erehis reign was peaceful disposition as the king of his people, he acquired the appellation, “A Wua ne Ere” which literally means that “quarrelling is forbidden by the Ere” and which carried during his reign the force of law and sanction it can therefore be rightly claimed that the Benin kingdom was founded on peace and accord, born of an idea, an idea that struck the people like a bolt of lightning in establishing the monarchy to search for truth, order, peace and greatness.2
    It is on this ground that the pre-colonial Benin Empire will be examined bringing to light the causes and types of the conflicts they experiences, the management and resolution of such conflict and the impacts of such conflicts in the empire.
Aims and Objectives
    The main objectives of this work is to bring to the measures taken by traditional rulers in precolonial Benin to ensure the management of conflict in the empire. The specific aims of this project are
1.    To give an historical background of Benin Empire
2.    To give conceptual definition of conflict and conflict resolution
3.    Unveil the types and causes of conflict that existed in the pre- colonial Benin Empire
4.    Analyse the modes of resolution of these conflicts
5.    Identify the impacts of such conflicts on the pre-colonial Benin Empire.
Scope and Limitation of Study
    This study focuses on the causes of conflicts in pre- colonial Benin and the modes of resolving these conflicts. The organization structures that were put in place to prevent the re- occurrence of such conflicts and penalties that were accorded people who made it a custom to flaunt the structure. This work therefore focuses on how conflict was managed in the pre-colonial Benin Empire.
Significance of Study
    The benefits of this study will include both intellectual and practical. This research will reflect findings which will be of great help to other researchers on the mode of resolving conflict in pre-colonial Benin. Also it will be very significant as an intellectual work as most works in this field regarding the benin empire are only related to the historical background and institution. Works have also been done on impact of Europeans on Benin culture. This work takes a different approach to reveal the causes of conflicts and their mode of resolution in pre colonial Benin.  
Methodology
    In course of research for this work, relevant data and information will be obtained from two main sources
Primary Sources
    Primary Sources that will be utilised in the course of the research include, Letter and Interviews.
Secondary Sources
    A systematic analysis will be derived from secondary sourced materials which included textbook, journals and Articles. Information obtained from these sources will help to guide and supplement materials from primary sources.
Chapterization
    This work is divided into five chapter as follow:
Chapter One: Introduction and Background of Study
    This chapter provides the summary of the project work showing the aims and objectives of this research work
Chapter Two: Definition of Conflict and Conflict Resolution
    This chapter examines the concepts of conflicts and conflicts resolution. It further talks a look into the history of the Benin people showing the origin of the people and their dynasty.
Chapter Three: Types and Causes of Conflict in Pre- colonial Benin and Resolution
    This chapter examine the types of conflicts that were present in pre-colonial Benin Empire. It further reveals the causes of these conflicts and the means of resolving such conflicts. The chapter also examines the machines and structures put in place to settle disputes that arose between members of the society revealing also the punishments accorded to offenders and law breakers.
Chapter Four: Impact of Conflict in Pre- Colonial Benin
    This chapter examines the impacts that conflicts situations had on the pre-colonial Benin Empire. These impacts were both positive and negative in nature.
Chapter Five: Conclusion
    This is the concluding part of this work.it presents an ramification of all that has been examined in the project.
Literature Review
    Pre-colonial Benin in his time experience a huge expansion incorporating small groups into it. In the process it had its moment of peace and conflict. In considering the mode of conflict resolution in pre-colonial Benin it is pertinent to first study the history of the people. Some literature to review include: P.A Igbafe in Benin in the pre-colonial Era.3  In this book the writer renders the origin of Benin in two aspect. The firist is the Origin of the People, while the other is the origin of the ruling dynasty. He furthered emphasised that a great deal of confusion has been introduced into the study of Benin history by the mixture of this two aspect by some writers. A.F C Ryder in his book Benin and the Europeans.4 in this book the writer also gave a brief history of the Benin people asserting that the origins of the kingdom are lost in myth and antiquity from which survives only a traditions of migration from the east that is common to many West African people.
    Other works that are relevant in this  aspect are Chief S.O.U Igbe in his book From Birth to Death: A Benin Cultural Voyage5. He identify three period in the history of Benin kingdom further asserting that for the Benin as a people, the king and the people were the product of the period. The first period were the great period of the Ogiso from 900AD, the rulers were known as Obas although they ruled as kings with Igodo as the first if the 31 Ogiso. The second period of the Benin kingdom began with Oba Eweka 1 (1200AD) while the third period was from 1914 when Oba Eweka 11 came to the throne with death of Oba Ovoramwen. There was however a controversy in these work as to where to credit the origin of the Benin people. It was P.A Igbafe who clarified that the confusion in historical origin came up in the mix up of the two aspect of the Benin origin which are the origin of the people and the origin of the ruling dynasty.
    The next work to be rewieved is Felix Ejukomenu Oghi “Conflict Resolution in Pre-colonial Benin”.6 in this article the writer brought to light the major causes of conflict in pre-colonial Benin which were activities of witchcraft, adultery, theft, inheritances, succession dispute and land dispute.  Aworom Annang “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Pre-colonial Africa.7 in this article the writer gave the general causes of conflict in pre-colonial Africa. This work lacks the specific information needed for my research as pertaining to conflict resolutions in pre-colonial Benin.
    More so, the literature of Francisca Akunna Ezenewoko and Joseph Inegbenebho Osagie “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in pre-colonial Ibo Society of Nigeria”.8 was very helpful in discovering the mechanism of conflicts resolution in pre-colonial Nigeria, it reviewed the principle of Ubuntu a concept that demonstrate the fact that Africa had over the years developed and tested varied method of conflict resolution. The lapses of this work was the constraints of their research to the Ibo society of Nigeria.
    Finally, other method of conflict resolution in precolonial Benin were vested in the judicial system as contained in Phiph Aigbona Igbafe Benin under British Administration.9 This judicial system existed at the village level and quarter’s levels. At the quarter’s level, elders tried dispute between parties living in their quarters while the village head and his council exercise judicial as well as executivepower at the village level. Of all the literatures used this book was the most helpful in the course of my research.
Endnotes
1.    Francisca A Ezenwoka, Joseph I. Osagie, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Pre-colonial Igbo Society of Nigeria”, Journal of studies in social science, Vol. 9(1), 2014, p. 136.
2.    P.A. Igafe, “Benin in the pre-colonial era” in ohare  keme and S.O Osaba (ed), Government in Pre-Colonial Africa, United States: Humanities Press, 1972, p. 1
3.    Ibid.,1-5.
4.    S.O.U. Igbe, From Birth to Death a Benin Cultural Voyage, Benin: New Dawn International, 2009.
5.    A.F.C. Ryder, Benin and the Europeans 1485-1897, London, 1977.
6.    J.I. Osagie, Nigerian History in Pre-colonial times Southern Nigeria in A.D. Nzemeke and E.O. Erhagbe (ed), Nigeria People and Culture, University of Benin, 2002, p. 13.
7.    Amnang, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Indigenous Africa”, Africa Journal of Culture, Philosophy and Society. Vol. 1(1). 2011.
8.    Francisca Akuna Ezenwoko and Joseph Inegbenebho Osagie, “Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Pre- colonial Igbo Society of Nigeria”. Journal of Studies in Social Sciences, Vol. 9(1), 2014.
Philip Agbona Igbafe, Benin under British Administration: The impact of Colonial Rule on an African Kingdom 1897-1938, London: Longman, 1979.

CAUSES OF CONFLICTS IN PRE- COLONIAL BENIN AND THE MODES USED IN RESOLVING THESE CONFLICTS

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Details

Type Project
Department History
Project ID HIS0065
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 67 Pages
Methodology Descriptive
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department History
    Project ID HIS0065
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 67 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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