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THE ROLE AND PROSPECTS OF TRADITIONAL RULERS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CASE STUDY BAKASI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:66
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Public Administration Project Topics & Materials)
THE ROLE AND PROSPECTS OF TRADITIONAL RULERS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CASE STUDY BAKASI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There has been change in the role of traditional rulers in Nigeria as it applies to Public Administration, since the introduction of local government reforms of 1976 in the said reforms, leadership roles were clearly expressed, which states that it is not the intention of government to destroy the organic unity of the traditional institutions. The traditional emirate and chiefdom will remain, although their functions will be changed to accord with the present day circumstances.
Although the paramount of chiefs was undone by colonial rule, traditional rulers have served as important adjuncts in the administration of post-colonial government in both Nigeria and Africa (Miles, 2007).
Local governments are creations of state government. As such, the Benue State Government under the delegated, powers enacted the 1976 local government edict number 14 of 1978. This in effect streamlined the procedure for the selection, recognition and roles of traditional rulers. This therefore, formed the constitutional framework for traditional democracy, by a community selection of an acceptable ruler. There were the warrant chiefs during the indirect rule system, and the then colonial government recognized local chiefs, who performed as native court judges. The first class chiefs were recognized in the middle belt of Nigeria during the colonial era. All these sets of traditional rulers contributed in no small measure, to the upliftment of Public Administration (ojo, 1976).
The Tiv traditional society is purely a republican one; ruled by ideas of political sovereignty, egalitarianism and human co-operation. The Bakasi political authority includes the traditional ruler (Ter), district heads, local government officer responsible for chieftaincy matters and the council of elders.
The role of traditional rulers in Bakasi has been undergoing change as the democratic dispensation within the country develops. It has therefore become necessary that they redefine their role as heads of their polities within the framework of developmental efforts by the central government and its adjuncts; as well as, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (Donkoh, 2002: 105-114).
Traditional rulers in Bakasi remain for a variety of reasons, important to the design and implementation of development projects within his area of jurisdiction. Their core functions include mobilization of their communities for developmental purposes. This includes the provision of infrastructure for enhanced standard of living within the community. Sometimes, traditional rulers initiate     development projects and secure the support of both internal and external development agents for the execution of these projects (Donkoh, 2002:105-114).
Traditional rulers work in conjunction with their subjects and therefore carry the whole community along to accomplish development projects that will be of benefit to the entire community. Thus, this study is aimed at finding out the role of traditional rulers in Bakasi local government area. The Federal Republic of Nigeria makes the following statement in respect of  the judgment by the International Court of Justice in The Hague, in the  case concerning the land and maritime boundary" between Cameroon and  Nigeria.
The Government of Nigeria has substantially examined the implications of the judgment delivered by the International Court of Justice in The Hague on  10th October 2002. The decision of the Court covered five specific areas:
1.  Lake Chad
2. The Land Boundary between Nigeria and Cameroon.
3. Bakassi
4.  Cameroon's claim to a major share of offshore resources - particularly oil  in the Gulf of Guinea; and
5. Claims of both sides for reparations involving State responsibilities.
In 1884, the Kings, Chiefs and people of Old Calabar signed a treaty of protection with Great Britain, That treaty did not give the British power to alienate all or any part of the land which they were supposed to protect. The protectorate included Bakassi. This is what they claimed to have done in 1913 when Great Britain allegedly ceded Bakassi to Germany. The Court, in disregard of the inalienable rights of the Kings, Chiefs and people of Old Calabar to their land and ancestral homes, upheld the Anglo-German Treaty of  1913 by which Britain ceded the Bakassi Peninsular to Germany. This treaty was essentially the basis of the judgement giving sovereignty over Bakassi to Cameroon. The Court, without any justification whatsoever, failed or refused to follow its own precedent set in the Advisory Opinion on Western Sahara where it recognized the local rulers' possession and title as superior to other forms of title. In the case of Bakassi, the root: of title belongs to title King, the Chiefs and the people of old Calabar. Neither Germany nor for that matter Cameroon could therefore claim Bakassi as terrace nullius. In the judgment in the case of the frontier dispute, Burkina Faso-Mali which the Court relied upon in the Nigeria vs. Cameroon judgment, they interpreted the first part of that paragraph (i.e. para 63 of that case) as being in favour of Cameroon but failed to take cognizance of the latter part of the paragraph which states that affectivities must invariably be given consideration. The Court failed to give that consideration(Onyeama ,1982)
The Court decided that during the League of Nations Mandate, and subsequently, the United Nations Trusteeship, Bakassi had been administered by Nigeria as part of the Mandate/Trust territory. However, the Court, having admitted that the Southern Cameroons plebiscite Order of 1960 "made no mention of any polling station bearing the name of a Bakassi Village" (and Nigeria knowing as a fact that they never participated), went ahead to presume that the inhabitants of Bakassi had indeed exercised their rights to self- determination (Ega,2005) .
Furthermore, the exercise of authority of traditional rulers, the Efik and Efiat toponymy of the territory, its ethnic affiliation with Nigeria and not with Cameroon, the long established permanent settlement of Nigerians which continues to exist undisturbed and the manifestation of sovereign acts, such as tax collection, census-taking, provision of education, judicial and public health services, which formed the basis of Nigeria's historical territorial title was totally disregarded in the judgment of the Court.
In the instant case, for purely political reasons, the Court, headed by a French President, upheld a legal position which is contrary to all known laws and conventions, thus legitimizing and promoting the interests of former colonial powers at our expense. The French President of the Court and the English and German Judges should have disqualified themselves since the countries which they represent are, in essence, parties to the action or have substantial stakes. These Judges, as citizens of the colonial powers whose action had come under scrutiny, have acted judges in their own cause and thereby rendered their judgement virtually null and void. Nigeria does not accept that a Protectorate Treaty made without jurisdiction should take precedence over community's title rights and ownership existing from time immemorial. Great Britain could not have given to Germany what it did not have, For a stronger reason, what Germany did not have could not have been transferred to Cameroon, (Sula, 2000)
Bakassi and the thirty-three villages in the Lake Chad area in Issue have, from time immemorial, been inhabited by Nigerians who owe their allegiance to local Nigerian rulers, State Governments and the Federal Government. These areas have always been administered by Nigerian authorities and there is no record or any evidence of their; having come under Cameroonian rule. The Court did not dispute this evidence but maintained, quite erroneously that the colonial treaties took precedence over the inalienable rights of  ownership of the land by the Nigerian inhabitants.
Furthermore, all land and territory comprising the nation of Nigeria is specified in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Bakassi as a Local Government is so specified in Part 1 of the First Schedule to the Constitution. Being a nation ruled by law, we are bound to continue to exercise jurisdiction over these areas accordance with the Constitution. The responsibility for the amendment of the Constitution being that of the National Assembly of Nigeria and the State Assemblies, the Federal Government, all affected State Governments and Local Government Councils will continue to exercise their constitutional responsibilities over all Nigerian territory as specified in the Constitution until the National and' various States Assemblies effect amendment to the Constitution (Ujo, 2000)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The traditional rulers in Bakasi local government area, knowing well of their role and expectation in their area of jurisdiction most often deviate from these role and expectations which brings about change and ushers the community into development. What then is the role of traditional rulers in Public Administration? what are the constraints facing the traditional rulers in the discharge of their Public Administration? , how can the role of traditional rulers in Public Administration be improved in Bakasi local government area?
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study attempts to provide answers to the following questions formulated.
Can traditional rulers be able to embark on community development programme(s) in Bakasi?
 Have traditional ruler (s) executed any Community Development programme(s) in Bakasi?
 What kind of Community Development programme(s) have they been able to execute?
 What are the causes hindering traditional rulers from carrying out community development  programme(s) in Bakasi?
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim and objectives of this study include:
To know the extent of the involvement of traditional rulers in public administration
 To find out the constraints faced by traditional rulers in Community Development Projects, in Bakasi local government area.
 To suggest ways to improve and encourage traditional rulers in developmental projects.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study of the role of traditional rulers in Public Administration is sociologically important because contemporary society is geared towards development; either socially, economically, politically, technologically e.t.c
The study is also significant because it will help to find solution to the problems hindering traditional rulers from carrying out Community Development programme (s) not only in Bakasi but also beyond. More so, it will help the government to assist traditional rulers in Community Development programme (s).
Theoretically, this research work may help members of the public to have vast knowledge about the role of traditional rulers in embarking on Community Development programme(s); as well as, the problems they encounter in Bakasi. This may help them to be constructive in their criticism; and may also help subsequent researchers, to built on it and improve on their work.
1.6 HYPOTHESIS
Traditional ruler (s) can make a positive impact in Community Development programme(s) in Bakasi.
 Traditional ruler (s) will be ineffective in carrying out Community Development programme(s) in Bakasi.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work is limited to determining the role of traditional rulers in Community Development programme(s); on how they initiate, embark and execute projects in Bakasi, and make useful recommendations on how traditional rulers should have executed Community Development programme(s) within 2000 to 2009.
The scope of this research is however limited to Bakasi local government area due to lack of funds and proximity of time.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This study would define the following terms.
Role: This refers to the part a person or thing plays in a specific situation or operation. In this study, it is related to the expected functions that a rulers of a community plays or should play for the benefit of his subjects and community.
 Tradition: It refers to a cultural continuity transmitted in the form of social attitude, beliefs, principle and convention of behaviors derived from past experiences and helping to shape the present. In this study, it portrays the legacy that the installed ruler will leave behind, the blue print that stands the test of time.
Traditional Ruler: A control authority, the reign of a monarchy and the accepted controller by the people over them in their affairs of life. In this study, it means a collectively elected person (s) selected by the community to pilot the affairs of his people in line with customs and traditions of the community.
Community: A place in which an interacting group of people living in the same territory: town, village, suburb, or neighborhood. In this study, it means a trait or concern commonly shared by people, children, and youths in terms of social relations characterized by personal intimacy, emotional ties and social cohesion.
Development: Is regarded as a continuous process of positive changes in the quality and span life of a person or group of persons. Thus ‘Development’ used in this context is more meaningful when it has to do with progressive improvement in the quality and living standards of the people pertaining to their aspirations and resources at their disposal.

THE ROLE AND PROSPECTS OF TRADITIONAL RULERS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: CASE STUDY BAKASI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
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Details

Type Project
Department Public Administration
Project ID PUB0501
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 66 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Public Administration
    Project ID PUB0501
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 66 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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