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  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:124
  • Methodology:ANOVA
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Business Administration and Management Project Topics & Materials)

Background to the Study
“Glass ceiling” is a term coined in the 1970s in the United States to describe the invisible artificial barriers, created by attitudinal and organizational prejudices, which block women from senior executive positions (Sheridan, 1998). Historically, the global picture has been one of discrimination against girls and women in education for all but a favoured few. Several writers note that in ancient times access to education was restricted to the daughters of the ruling elites. The phenomenon that keeps women from reaching the top levels of organizations has been labelled the "glass ceiling" (Morrison, White, Van Velsor, and the Center for Creative Leadership, 1987). Morrison and colleagues described the glass ceiling as a "transparent barrier that keeps women from rising above a certain level in corporations" (1987: 13). They considered it a barrier for women as a group, barring individuals' advancement simply because they are women rather than because they lack the ability to handle jobs at higher levels. The Wall Street Journal report on corporate women by Hymowitz and Schellhardt (1986) described the glass ceiling as a concept that most frequently refers to barriers faced by women who attempt, or aspire, to attain senior positions (as well as higher salary levels) in corporations, government, education and non-profit organizations. It can also refer to racial and ethnic minorities and men when they experience barriers to advancement. Although the glass ceiling could exist at different levels in different organizations or industries, the term is typically used to suggest a barrier to entry into top-level management positions.
Whether this glass ceiling occurs in the workplace or in politics, it is essentially a reflection of social and economic gender inequality. With the achievement of educational parity and changes in social attitudes towards men’s and women’s roles, it had been somehow assumed that women would quickly move up the career ladder. This has proved hard to achieve and no more so than at the top, where the prevalence of male executives tends to perpetuate the glass ceiling and where women often find themselves without the right mix of corporate experience required for senior executive positions.
The position of women in higher education management cannot be treated in isolation from the general status of women in society, and from the general aims of economic and social development. Access to education is a telling indicator of women’s status in a given society. Cultural perceptions of the roles which women are expected to fill are reflected in the extent to which women participate in formal education and the type of education to which they have access. In seeking to explain the underrepresentation of women in higher education management, we turn first to consider the unequal participation of girls and women in education, to reflect on the reasons for this phenomenon and to highlight its adverse consequences. This system of rewards originated from a worldview that values the 'traditional' model of family and responsibilities, where women take care of domestic matters and men take care of providing financially for the family. In such a model, men do not have to juggle their family responsibilities with their career demands in the same way that parents who need to pick up their children from child care might need to. Thus it is often said that many organizations are masculine and patriarchal because they value and reward behaviours that are consistent with a white patriarchal model of family. Meanwhile, without other interventions, a glass ceiling is placed on working parents, single parents, and others.
A major source of discrimination stems from strongly held attitudes towards women’s and men’s social roles and behaviour. If one compares the effective roles played by women and men rather than looking at women as an isolated group, it becomes apparent that each has different access to resources, work opportunities and status. The consequences of gender inequalities include women being “crowded” into a narrow range of occupations where there is less responsibility and/or lower pay, or having to work part time, where there are fewer opportunities for advancement. While this situation can be explained to some extent by men’s and women’s perceptions of their respective social roles, these roles have in fact been undergoing substantial changes in recent decades. Labour force participation patterns of men and women, and social attitudes, have been gradually evolving to reflect these. Since the advent of the women’s movement, changes in social acceptance of gender equality have been primarily due to changing perceptions among women and men themselves. The promulgation and enforcement of equal opportunity laws have not only lessened institutional discrimination; they have also had a considerable impact on the awareness of populations. In recent years, women’s working lives have become characterized by more continuous labour force participation. Women have entered many of the professions previously reserved for men, and their earnings have become an essential part of household income. These changes have led to shifts in societal views about the role of women in the economy.
The present article focuses on shattering the glass ceiling phenomenon in the Nigeria Tertiary institution and presents the outcomes of a case study implemented on this subject in the University of Benin (UNIBEN), Benin City, Edo State. The study sought to discover how strategic structural and cultural features of tertiary institutions impact on the glass ceiling phenomenon.
This research study contains five chapters. The first chapter gives the introduction and background to the scope of study. The second reviewed related literatures that discussed the variables related to the study, while the third, is about the Research design and methodology adopted for the research study. In the fourth chapter, the data obtained is analysed and interpreted. The research findings of the researcher will also be discussed in chapter four. The last chapter (chapter five) discusses the summary, conclusion and recommendations.
Statement of the Research Problem
Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and more general theoretical analysis. Such research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by debates on: feminism; recognition of women and women’s situation; divisions of labour; hierarchy; imagery and symbolism; home-work relations; men and masculinities in leadership; and so on. The vast majority of mainstream work on ‘glass-ceiling phenomenon’ in Nigeria tertiary institution is still not well established. Field studies to date have not investigated fully whether actual promotion decisions for top management positions reflect the glass ceiling phenomenon in Nigeria’s tertiary institution. The present study was designed to fill this void.
Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this research is to discover the constraints and barrier to women’s upward mobility into leadership position in Nigeria tertiary institution and the strategies to institute positive change in planning and management of education systems that will increase the participation of women. Specifically, this research work aims at achieving the following objectives:
To determine the degree to which the glass ceiling phenomenon exist in Nigeria institution.
To determine the reactions and attitudes to the glass ceiling phenomenon.
To establish the consequences of the glass ceiling phenomenon for participants and the institution.
To examine the extent to which the glass ceiling phenomenon is practice in Nigeria Tertiary institution.
To determine if there is a relationship between the extent of the glass ceiling phenomenon in UNIBEN and the demography of the participants.
Research Questions
To what degree does the glass ceiling phenomenon exist in Nigeria institution?
What are the reactions and attitudes to the glass ceiling phenomenon?
What are the consequences of the glass ceiling phenomenon for participants and the institution?
To what extent is the glass ceiling phenomenon practiced in Nigeria Tertiary institution?
What is the extent to which the glass ceiling phenomenon is related to the demography of the participants?
Significance of the Study
This study is expected to provide a useful contribution to both theorists and practitioners, and will contribute to the development of science in general and human resource management in particular. Policy makers would benefit from the result of the study as it would lead to the recommendation of the better and more appropriate policy that should be practiced in various institutions. It would be of benefit to government agencies engaged in training of personnel/man-power because it would enable them see the need for breaking the glass ceiling phenomenon.
Scope of the Study
In pursuance of the objective of the study; this research is a cross-sectional quantitative study and for the purpose of this article, the glass ceiling is discussed regarding women in tertiary institution with a focus on advancement to senior positions. The sample will be drawn from academic staff in University of Benin, Ugbowo, Benin City, Edo State.
1.7    Limitations of the Study
The first potential limitation of this study is that it will capture a single period in time as compared to a longitudinal study that would capture the effect of time. Also, there are some items that may not be too detail revealed in this study because of personal reasons from the respondents especially in relation to tough psychological decisions. And lastly, the attitudes of some staffs in the University of Benin, Benin City to divulge valuable information will pose a great challenge. This could be attributed to the so called “oath of secrecy” alleged to have been sworn by the staffs.
The failure of this study to consider these factors does not, however, compromise the findings, particularly the attention it brings to the issue of shattering the glass ceiling phenomenon in Nigeria tertiary institution.

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Type Project
Department Business Administration and Management
Project ID BAM1519
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 124 Pages
Methodology ANOVA
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Type Project
    Department Business Administration and Management
    Project ID BAM1519
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 124 Pages
    Methodology ANOVA
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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