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CITIZENSHIP PARTICIPATION AND ELECTORAL SANITY IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF 2011 AND 2015 GENERAL ELECTION IN EDO STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:100
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Political Science Project Topics & Materials)
CITIZENSHIP PARTICIPATION AND ELECTORAL SANITY IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF 2011 AND 2015 GENERAL ELECTION IN EDO STATE
ABSTRACT

    This study inquires into, and survey opinions of Nigerians on some of the factors that influences citizens low voters participation and electoral insanity during elections. This study made use of data elicited from respondents from three local Government area in Edo State Benin city Nigeria. The exercise was undertaken against the backdrop of the common desire of Nigerians from the attainment of credibility in the country’s electoral process, which would facilitate the consolidation of democracy obtained by legitimacy. The subject of discussion has been if the citizen participation and susceptibility of the Nigerian electorates are supportive or otherwise in relations to the identified factors impacting on the credibility of the electoral process in Nigeria. The cluster random sampling techniques was utilized to select the respondents , sample of 150 Nigerians from Oredo, Ikpobaokha and Ovia north east local Government area in Benin city Edo state. The structured questionnaire designed to elicit appropriate and adequate responses on citizenship participation and electoral sanity in Nigerian election, was the measurement instrument utilized. The data gathered were analyzed with the aid of simple percentage. Evidence from the study results reveal that; majority of the respondents were of the view that tedious registration and voting process hinders citizens from participating in election; majority were of the view that electoral sanity can be achieved by politically educating the electorate and also electoral sanity could be achievable when the electorate have confidence in the electioneering process. At the end of the study, some policy advice or recommendation were made these include; the need for the INEC to conduct transparent and credible elections, improve voters registration process, educate voters sufficiently etc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE    
INTRODUCTION    
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY    
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM    
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY    
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS    
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY    
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS    
1.7 DEFINITION OF BASIC TERMS    
CHAPTER TWO    
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK    
2.1 HISTORY OF NIGERIA ELECTIONS    
2.2 CITIZENSHIP PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA ELECTIONS 1999-2015    
2.3 FACTORS THAT DETERMINE CITIZENSHIP LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN ELECTION    
2.4 INEC STRATEGIES IN 2011 AND 2015 GENERAL ELECTIONS    
2.5 THE 2015 GENERAL ELECTIONS INEC STRATEGIES    
2.6 CITIZENSHIP PARTICIPATION AND ELECTORAL SANITY THE NEXUS
2.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK    
CHAPTER THREE    
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY    
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN    
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY    
3.3 SAMPLE SIZE/SAMPLING TECHNIQUE    
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT    
3.5 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT    
3.6 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION    
3.7 TECHNIQUES OF DATA ANALYSIS    
CHAPTER FOUR    
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS    
4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS IN SECTION A
4.2 ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS    
4.4 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS    
CHAPTER FIVE    
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS    
5.1 SUMMARY    
5.2 CONCLUSION    
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS    
REFERENCES    
APPENDIX    
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: Percentage distribution of respondents by sex                    
Table 4.2: Percentage distribution by age                            
Table 4.3: Percentage distribution of respondents by marital status                 
Table 4.4. Percentage distribution of respondents by educational qualification        
Table 4.5: Percentage distribution of respondents by religion                 
Table 4.6: Percentage distribution of respondents by Local Government             
Table 4.7: Demographic characteristics of respondents in section B                
To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following questions regarding citizenship participation and electoral sanity in Nigeria
Table 4.8: What are the factors that induced citizen in participating in election         
Table 4.9: What are the possible ways that citizenship participation can encourage
electoral sanity
Table 4.10: What are the reasons for citizens non-participation in election         
Table 4.11: Does citizens age, sex, occupation, marital status, level of education, religion has
to do with their level of participation in election
4.12: What are the approaches and measures that can be adopted by the electoral body towards     
more citizens participation and credible elections
Table 4.13: Test of Research hypothesis one                        
Table 4.14.Test of Research hypothesis two                            
Table 4.15: Test of Research hypothesis three                    
 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THESTUDY
    Theconductofcredibleelectionsisessentialinanydemocracyandisatcoreofcitizensdemocraticrights.Sincetheendofthecoldwar, the reintroduction of multipartydemocracyandthegradualreopeningofthepoliticalspacehaveensuredthattheconductofelectionsistheacceptablemeansofpoliticalchangeinmostdemocracies.Inaddition,‘’crediblecompetitiveelectionshavebecomeanecessary,albeitsufficientsourceofbehavioral,itnotattitudinal,legitimacyinAfrica’semergingdemocracies(MOZAFFAR2002:8)
 ElectionsinademocraticsettinglikeNigeriaispivotalasitseekstosecurethelegitimacyofthepoliticalsystem.Thus,Dulton(1988,p35)heldthat,“Citizeninvolvementinthepoliticalprocessisessentialfordemocracytobeviableandmeaningful”.
    Participationinpoliticalandpubliclifeisahumanrightaswellasanimportantstopintheprocessofenjoyingotherhumanrights .Itencompasstherighttovoteandtherighttobeelectedhoweveritgoesbeyondformaldemocraticprocessesandincludesbroaderparticipation,suchasparticipationindecision-makingonlawand policyaswellasParticipationindevelopmentpolicyaswellasparticipationindevelopmentandhumanitarianassistance.(UNHR,2012).
    Electoralsanityariseswherean electionconductedisdevoidofactswhichareinimicalornotin tandemwiththeelectoralguidelinesorconducts.Electoralsanitythereforeisattainedwherevotersvoteinanelectionwithoutthefearofintimidation, harassment, snatching and stuffing of ballot boxes, financial inducement. It occurs most often when some political parties vows to win an election through unlawful means at the expense of the electorates.Wewouldonlyappreciatehowmuchsanity hasbeenrestoredintheelectoralsystemifwebegintojuxtaposefiguresfrom2011electionswiththoseof2015vis-à-visthenumberofsupposedvotersagainstthenumberofPVC’Sconducted.Nevertheless,itisrathershockingNigerianswouldpretendapparentlyforsakeofconveniencethatallwaswellwiththemagicoffiguresthatplayedoutfromtheresultsacrossthecountry.Itisevenmoreintriguesthattheelectionhasbeentoutedunprecedentedforthewrongreasonsbyindividualsandfromquantumthatoughttoknowmuchbetterbutmorethananything,whatisunprecedentedabouttheelectionistheleveloffraudwearebeingmadetooverlookoracceptasastandardofelectoralprocess.
 ThereisnodoubtprofessorAttahiruJegaandhisteamatindependentNationalElectoralCommission(INEC)musthavedoneallhumanlypossibletoinvesttheelectoralprocesswithcredibility.Notablytheintroductionofpermanentvotercards(PVC)andthecontroversialcard-readerswereobviouslytherightstepsintherightdirectionin spiteofwhateverflowswemayhaveseen.
 The2011generalelectionwhichwasheldonthe16thdayofApril2011wasthethirdtobeconductedbytheindependentelectoralcommissionsincethetransitiontocivilrulein1999.Thus,in spiteoftheillsthatfollowedthe1999,2003,and2007elections,Nigeriastillshowedtheirwillingnesstoelecttheirleaderseveninthe2011elections.Suchstartedwithatimetablewhichwassetandadjustedlaterforconveniencetopreventelectoralviolenceduringtheelections,ameetingofthe36statesgovernorsofthefederationwasheldonthe8thofFebruary2011 atAbujaanditwaspresidedoverbythechairmanoftheNigeriangovernorsforum(NGR)inthepersonofBukolaSarakitodiscussmodalitiestowardsorganizingafreeandfaircredibleelectionandviolentfreeelection.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Democracyshouldbeacelebrationofan involvedpublic.Democracyrequiresanactivecitizenrybecauseitisthroughdiscussion,popularinterestandinvolvementinpoliticsthatsocietalgoalscanbedefinedandcarried outwithoutpublicinvolvementintheprocessdemocracylacksbothitslegitimacyanditsguidingforce(Russell,2002).
 Thereisaglobalevidenceofpoliticalapathywhichhasemergedasamajorprobleminmatureandemergingdemocracies,settledandvolatilesocieties,largeandthrivingeconomies,aswellassmallandtroubledones,amongyouths,womenandmarginalizedgroupsasmuchasamongmainstreamdominantinterestinNigeria.Thesystemicvoterturnoutsince2007isanindicationthatNigerianshavegreatlybecomeapathetictowardselections,statisticsfromtheindependentnationalelectoralcommissioncapturedthetrendinvoterturnout,52.2%in1999,69.08%in2003,57.49%in2007,53.68%in2011and43.65%in2015.Thelackofgenuinedemocracyinacountrypeople’sperceptionsofnotbeingabletoinfluencethepoliticalagendaandlackofinterestinpoliticallifeareallfactorsthatcaninfluencethelevelsofelectoralparticipationconsiderably.
    Nigeria’selectoralhistoryhadbeencharacterizedbygraveincidencesofelectoralmalpracticesbeginningfromthefirstrepublic.As rightlyobservedbyEguavoen(2009;27).InNigerianpolitics,experienceshowthatthecountryhasneverhadcrisisfreeandfairelections,thiscanbeattributedtoflawsintheelectoralprocessintwodifferentways;lackoftrust,confidenceandcredibilityintheelectoralprocessandintheelectoralinstitutionsresponsiblefororganizingelections.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
 Citizensparticipationasasubsetofpoliticalbehaviorisspeciallyaddressed,identifiedandmeasuredinthecontextofvotersturnout,namelytheincidenceandquantumoftheexerciseoftheirfranchise.Lowcitizensparticipationdescribesthataspectofvoterbehaviorcapturedbynon-votinginanelection.Ithasemergedasamajorprobleminmatureandemergingdemocraciessettledandvolatilesocieties,largeandthrivingeconomiesaswellassmallmarginalizedgroupsasmuchasamongmainstreamdominantinterest(InternationalIdeal1999;2002).
    Theneedforthisstudyisbasedon theglobalrealizationofthevitalroleofcredibleelectionsasthebedrockofdemocracy,democratizationandgoodgovernance.Citizensparticipationhelpstosecurethelegitimacyofthepoliticalsystem.AlsothefindingsforthisstudywillhelpbeamthesearchlightonthefactorsanddynamicsofcitizensparticipationintheelectoralprocessinNigeria.Theresearchwillprovidethebasisforunderstandingtheperplexityinvolvedincitizenparticipationinelection.
    Moreover,itwillprovidewaysinreducingelectoralmalpractices,electoralviolenceevenifnottotallycurbingitbuttryingtobringbackelectoralsanitytothecountry.
 Finally,itistheresearchersexpectationsthatthestudywillmakegoodleadershippieceforscholars,studentsandotherswhoareinterestedincitizensparticipationinelectionandwillserveasabasicsforfurtherresearch.    
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    This study is guided by the following questions
Whatarethefactorsthatinducedcitizeninparticipatinginelection?
In what possible ways do citizen participation encourage electoral sanity
What are the reasons for citizen non-participation in election?
Doescitizensage,sex,occupation,maritalstatus,levelofeducation,religionhastodowiththeirlevelofparticipationinelection?
Whataretheapproachesandmeasuresthatcanbeadoptedbytheelectoralbodytowardsmorecitizensparticipationandcredibleelections..
 1.5 OBJECTIVESOFTHESTUDY
    Thisstudyissettoachievethefollowinggoals;
Todeterminefactorsthatinducecitizenparticipationinelections
To examinethepossible ways that citizen participation can encourage electoral sanity.
To examine the reasons for citizens non-participation in elections
Todeterminetheextenttowhichage,sex,occupation,maritalstatus, levelofeducation,religionhastodowithparticipationinelection.
Tosuggestmeasuresandappropriatepolicyrecommendationstoimprovecitizensparticipationwhileatthesametimeengenderingelectoralsanity.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
    In line with the research question posed for this study, the following hypothesis are prepared
HO There is no significant relationship between citizenship participation and electoral sanity in Nigeria
HR There is a significant relationship between citizenship participation and electoral sanity in Nigeria.
HO Democratic decay doesn't frustrates citizenship participation in elections.
HR Democratic decay frustrates citizenship participation in elections.
HO There is no relationship between electoral sanity and political education.
HR There is a relationship between electoral sanity and political education.
1.7 DEFINITIONOFBASICTERMS
Forthepurposeofcharity,someoftheconceptsthatare usedinthisresearchstudyarehereunder-defined;
1.CitizenshipParticipation                                
Itisaprocesswhichprovidesprivateindividualsanopportunitytoinfluencepublicdecisionsandhadlongbeenacomponentofthedemocraticdecision-makingprocess.Hardina(2008)haddefinedcitizensparticipationastheprocesswherebythosewiththeleastresourcepeopleonthemarginsofsocietyareinvolvedindecisionabouttheservicestheyreceiveonthepartofthosethatrepresentthem,namely,thegovernmentandnot-for-profitorganizations.Riley,GriffenandMorey(2010)notedthatcitizenparticipationisthoughtofasasetofrightsanddutiesinvolvedformally organizedcivicandpoliticalactivities.
Uhlander (2001)seescitizenparticipationaspoliticalengagement.
2.Election                                                Thisistheprocessbywhichapersondecidetheirrulersandassignpersonstoleadershippositions.Itdenotesvoluntaryparticipationinthechoiceofleadersandthereforebequeathsorinvestslegitimacy. AccordingtoObakhedo(2011)electionisdefinedasamajorinstrumentfortherecruitmentofpoliticalleadershipindemocraticsocieties.AccordingtoAnifowose(2003) definedelectionastheprocessofeliteselectionbythemassofthepopulationinanygivenpoliticalsystem.
    3.Voting                                                AccordingtoMerriamWebster,votingitdefinesvotingas‘’Toexpressonesviewsinresponsetoapoll;especiallytoexerciseapoliticalfranchise
4.ElectoralSanity
Electoralsanityariseswhereanelectionconductedisdevoidofactswhichareinimicalornotin tandemwiththeelectoralguidelinesorconducts.Electoralsanitythereforeisattainedwherevotersvoteinanelectionwithoutthefearofintimidation,harassment,snatchingandstuffingofballot,financialinducemenetc.Itoccursmostoftenwhensomepoliticalpartiesvowstowinanelectionthroughunlawfulmeansattheexpenseofanelectoralsanityisacharacterizedbyinclusiveness,transparency,accountability,andcompetitiveness.Inclusiveelectionsprovideequalopportunitiesforalleligiblecitizenstoparticipateasvotersinselectingtheirrepresentativesandascandidatesforelectiontogovernment.
Foranelectoralsanitytotakeplace,ithascertainfeatures,first andforemostfeatureofanelectoralsanityisthatitmusthavethereflectionofthewillofthepeople.Article 21oftheuniversaldeclarationofHumanRightsstatesthatthe willofthepeopleshallbethebasisoftheauthorityofgovernment;thisshallbeexpressedinperiodicandgenuineelections. Thesecondimportantcriterionisthatitmustbeparticipatedbyallqualifiedpoliticalparties.TheUNinitsprinciplesdeclaredthat‘’politicalcontestants(parties,candidatesandsupportersofpositionsonreferenda)havevestedinterestsin theelectoralprocessthroughtheirrightstobeelectedandtoparticipatedirectlyingovernment.” ThethirdfundamentalingredientofElectoralsanityisthattheelectoralprocessmustbetrustedbythecitizens‘’Buildingthepublic’strustintheutmostimportancetoelectionmanagementbodiesaroundtheworld’’.Thesanityofanelectionlargelydependsontheactualperceivedintegrityoftheelectoralprocess.Morespecificallyifcitizensbelievetheelectoralprocessisdefective,dishonest,orlessthanfreeandfairtheymaynotacceptthe outcome.

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Type Project
Department Political Science
Project ID POL0355
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 100 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Political Science
    Project ID POL0355
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 100 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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