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AN ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITIES IN ORE, ONDO STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:58
  • Methodology:Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Geography Project Topics & Materials)
AN ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITIES IN ORE, ONDO STATE
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
One of the major problems confronting the developing countries in the process of development is the management of rapid deterioration and change in the urban areas. These changes if not well managed will impact on visual environmental qualities of an urban area over time as a result of in-migration and industrial activities. These present significant challenges as the high influx of people into the urban centres from the rural areas to take advantage of the perceived opportunities offered by the urban centres is not met with planning and effective management strategies by government to accommodate the rapid increase. These often result in serious pressure on both the economicsupporting infrastructure and the environment. For instance, urbanization has been identified as the cause of numerous environmental problems, which include but not limited to air, water, land and noise pollution, deforestation, local climate alteration, and traffic congestions, which ranges from local to the global scale (Mba et al,2004;Zhou et al., 2004; Liu 2005; Yuan 2008; Jago-On, 2009; Ohwo, 2015).
Globally, more people live in urban areas than in rural areas with 55%, 4.2 billion people of the world population residing in urban areas in 2018. In 1950, only 30% of the world’s population, 751 million people was urban and by 2050, 68% of the world’s population is projected to be urban. Africa alone account for 13% of this increase (UN DESA, 2018).
The National Population Commission 1991 observed that most urban areas in Nigeria have grown beyond their environmental carrying capacities and existing infrastructure. The problems and challenges posed by the rapid rate of uncontrolled and unplanned urban growth are immense. Millions of people live in substandard and sub-human environment plagued by slum, squalors, and gross inadequate amenities. The result is manifested in growing overcrowding in homes and increasing pressure on infrastructural amenities and deterioration of the environment especially in terms of the visual quality.
The consequent environmental quality can be assessed through various methods and approaches. In evaluating environmental quality, scientific/objective assessment have relied on professionally trained eyes (Crystal and Brush, 1978) while subjective interpretations have attempted to explore the ways residents or users themselves experience, perceive or judge qualities (Ebong, 1983; Chokor, 1990).
The majority of studies whether objective or subjective have relied on rating scales and data are commonly analyzed using multivariate procedures (Chokor 1987, 1989; Omuta, 1988).
1.2   Statement of the Problem
The rapid rate of urban growth and expansion in the town which is majorly uncontrolled because of the near absence of planning authority coupled with influx of in-migrants has considerably affected the visual environmental quality of the area. According to Iyorakpo(2015) the rate of rapid urbanization taking place in an urban area will lead to the emergence of several unplanned structures, haphazard deposition of refuse, lack of drainage, inadequate housing facilities, among others. These problems associated with urbanization and other consequences of unplanned and uncontrolled urban growth are the consequent impacts are widespread in Ore which studies have not addressed.It is against this backdrop; an assessment of the visual quality of Ore is not only vital but can contribute to enhancingto enhancing urban planning and management.
1.3Research Questions
What are the features reducing the visual appearance and physical quality of Ore?
What are the features contributing most to the visual appearance and physical quality of Ore?
What are the factors responsible for the visual blight and environmental quality being face in the town?
What is the pattern of variation in visual environmental quality in the town?
1.4   Aim and Objectives
This study is aimed at assessing the visual environmental quality of Ore, Ondo State from the view point of the people.In order to achieve this aim, the following objectives are pertinent
To determine the featuresthose reduces or enhance the visual appearance and physical quality of the town.
To determine which of these features contribute most in reducing visual appearance and physical environmental quality of the town.
To determine the variation in visual environmental quality in the town.
To examine the factors responsible for the negative visual blight and quality of the town.
1.5Hypothesis
H0: Thereis no significant difference in visual environmental quality between the core, middle and suburban area of the town.
1.6Significance of the Study
Environmental quality is at the centre of the objectives of planning and designs, since all planning and design aim to create a better environment in the interest of safety, health, aesthetics, comfort and general welfare.
The findings of this research can contribute to urban and regional planning. Urban planning is a valuable force for leaders to achieve sustainable development. Hence, this study will be beneficial to planners by helping them drive constructive changes as well as provide a basis for well-informed environmental decisions that will create a livable town for the residents.
This study will also be significant to developers in that it can help to address concerns of residents in terms of housing, road network, beautification, waste management and other concerns so as to deliver a more livable town.
1.7Scope of the Study
The scope of environmental quality assessment is very wide. However, this study is limited to the nature of visual environmental quality in Ore built-up area as perceived by the residents and its implication for environmental management. This study is thus not concerned with the professional assessment of the environment without recourse to the people who use, modify and create the environment.
1.8The Study Area
1.8.1 Historical Background
As at 1964, Ore was a mere road junction where motorists from Lagos to the eastern part of the country stopped-over to refuel their vehicles, eat and also engage in other social activities. The surrounding land was thick forest where people mainly traders and farmers engaged in subsistence and commercial farming. This was before the civil war. During the Nigeria Civil War of 1967-1970, it was also a military base for the Nigerian troops. There was the defunct 202 infantry battalion and a small military camp at Constain which is a small settlement near Ore. From 1986 various factors have contributed to the emergence of Ore as one of themajor urban settlement in Ondo state The increase in population which has effect on the expansion of the town is due to increase in commercial activities, and most importantly the location of the town asa nodal town.
The total built-up area of Ore town in 1964 was estimated to be approximately 1.2km2.This represents approximately 2 per cent of the study area of 62.2km2. Similarly, the total built-up area in 1986 and 2002 were also estimatedto be 11.3km2(18 per cent of the total land area) and 13.2km2(approximately 21.2 per cent of the total land area) respectively. The possible expansion value of the town by year 2027 was also calculated using the average rate of expansion of 1964 to 1986 and 1986 to 2002. Therefore expansion value in 2027 would be 55.33km2( Aguda et al, 2013).
1.8.2   Location and Size
The study area, Ore is the administrative headquarters of Odigbo Local Government area of Ondo state. It lies approximately between latitude 6043’ and 6047’ North and longitude 4051’and 4055’ East of Greenwich Meridian. It occupies a land area of about 66.2km2. Ore is a nodal town and serves as a linkage between the eastern and western parts of Nigeria and has been experiencing an unprecedented growth for the past decade both in population and in physical expansion.
1.8.3    Population
The population of Ore Town was not given in the 2006 population census because the National Population Commission (NPC) did not give the population of localities (settlements). Judging with the population of Odigbo Local Government Area, which was put at 230,351 (NPC, 2006), it is estimated that about 60% of the population of the local government live in Ore due to its strategic location and commercial function being a nodal town. Thus in 2006, about 138,211 lived in Ore. When an arithmetic projection based on conservative growth rate of 3% from 2006 to 2017, the current population of Ore Town is about 183,821
1.8.4 Climate and Vegetation
The total annual rainfall is between 1500-2000mm. The temperature varies from 210C to 290C throughout the year with an average value of 250C.
1.8.5 Socio-Economic Activities
The economic activities in the study area are highly influenced by the nodal nature of the town. These economic activities can be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary activities. Primary economic activities mainly include farming, hunting, lumbering. Secondary activities include cottage industries scattered all over the place such as sawmill, hotel services, and furniture industries. Major tertiary activities here include services such as banking, marketing etc. In addition, Ore provides enabling environment for the growth of retail and social services as a result of the links it has with other regions (Ondo, Benin City, Okitipupa and Sagamu).

AN ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITIES IN ORE, ONDO STATE

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Details

Type Project
Department Geography
Project ID GEO0038
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 58 Pages
Methodology Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Geography
    Project ID GEO0038
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 58 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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