THE EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL: A CASE STUDY OF OVIA SOUTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE, NIGERIA ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to find out the effect of home background on the students academic performance in Ovia South LGA of Edo State. The literature review was done through reading of textbooks newspapers and journals the method adopted were the questionnaires. The data got from the questionnaires were collected into figures and percentages which are show in tabular from. The responses from the data collected revealed that the socio-economic of the parents, residence and the size of the family affects the academic performance of students. Finally, recommendations to the above effect of home background on students academic performance in Ovia South West LGA are made and some of than include the following. Parents should try as much as possible to give much affection and encouragement to their children in order, which their children would be motivated which could boost their academic performance parents should have the number of children that they can easily cater for early upbringing of a child plays a vital role in (later) education of the child. So parents should ensure that good behaviour, peace, unity, understanding and friendly relationship exist at home for the child or children to emulate and to model to others, with these, to the best of my ability or knowledge educational advancement of the student could be enhanced. TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter One Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Statement of the study 1.3 Purpose of the study 1.4 Basic Assumption 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Scope of the study 1.7 Limitations of the study 1.8 Definition of terms Chapter Two Literature Review 2.1 Students place of residence and their academic performance Chapter Three Research methodology 3.1 Population 3.2 Sampling procedure 3.3 Research instrument Chapter Four Analysis, Interpretation of data 4.1 Table 1 4.2 Table 2 4.3 Chapter Five Summary, recommendations and conclusion 5.1 Summary 5.2 Recommendations 5.3 Conclusion References Questionnaires CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY An education system in any society both reflects and adopts itself to the political and economic circumstances of that society. Nigeria a developing country is not let out in this race to educate her citizens to build her manpower to meet the need of our ever changing world. In accordance with this, various administrations have adopted various policy measures in making sure that the education policy is properly implemented. There had been a change from the old system of education, which was inherited from our colonial masters, to the 6-3-3-4 system. All these are in attempt to establish a good educational system that is geared towards obtaining good performance in educational attainment of students. However, it is rather paradoxical or true that while some students have good performance, others do not have but do poorly in terms of education. When the students are successful, there is no course for concern but when the students are unsuccessful, it gives course for concern. Some countries like Nigeria have been characterized by this kind of lapses. Much blame has usually been leveled on the school authority as well as teachers attitude towards teaching. In this regard very few people care to think of other factors which might be responsible for student’s poor academic performance at school. The factors include usefulness and meaningfulness of materials learnt, mental retardation. Student’s age, classroom atmosphere and students home background and so forth. On this account Burt (1937) said that it is convey of backwardness asser5ted that background of a child affects his educational achievement. In the word of Glenn (1976) background may be due to individual courses such as poor health, emotional disturbances and mental retardation. Family background of students determines how the child views himself and the way he views others. The society is a function of these two factors. In other words, the environment of the child at home determines his behaviour as well as how he relates with others. However, the essential factor inherent in a home or family are the socio-economic, cultural and psychological factors. Culturally, the behavioural pattern among families differs from each other. While in some there is a sound cordial understanding or relationship between parents and children. While in some other, because of the cultural sanctions or taboos they observe their seem to be autocratic atmosphere in the home. This therefore influence students behaviour at school as opined by F. Musgrave (197) students who have much affection from the parents and guardians tend to perform better in school than those who have less or no affection from their parents emotionally, they may become depressed whish could hinder their academic performance. The socio-economic status of parents is another decisive factor, which could influence student’s performance. It is observed that students from well to do (affluent) home in most cases are more exposed and tend to do better than those from less affluent or very poor homes. Since home is the primary unit and agent of socialization from which the fundamental education of the child begins, the success or failure of any students depends largely on the encouragement by members of the family. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS Education generally, is a continuous process of enculturation, which begins from cradle (birth) and ends in grave. The type of education one receives determines his future potentials. Parents and guardians are ill-feeling about the harming rate of poor academic performance of students in school nowadays. What they do eventually is to call the teachers to questions the pupil’s poor performance. Little do they know that other factors apart from teacher’s abilities such as home background do influence pupil’s academic performance. The home being a primary unit of socialization and where most of children learning take place cannot be single or left out in identifying course of poor academic performance of a child. 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The role of education in any society is very vital and a systematic study into student’s performance will be of immense use to educational planners, teachers, government officials and any other agency or persons that are interested in the progress of the students. The study is interested in carried out to enable parents acquire the basic knowledge which will help in the laying of good foundation for their children there by having good academic performance. This fact has risen because the home has the primary unit of socialization. Through this study, parents may identify the problems of poor home background and learn ways which will enhance good academic performance of their children. To the educational planners, the study will help them to know that individual differences arise from different home background in educational planning and administration. To guidance and counselling officer in the school, the knowledge of home background will enable him advise his students appropriately. 1.4 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study is to critically examine the influence of home background in students performance in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. The area of concentration in this research students are : 1. Family or home background 2. Life style of various social classes 3. family size and students academic performance 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study is centralized on student’s performance by the family background and finding lasting solution to this problem. 1.6 HYPOTHESIS The following research hypotheses have been postulated by the researcher: 1. The effect of family background on students academic performance 2. Educating parents or guardians on the effect of family background on their children or wards performance. 3. Educating the teachers to know that there are individual differences among the students irrespective of their home bringing. 1.7 BASIC RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research is geared towards findings solution and the following will be asked: a. What are the causes of poor academic performance by students? b. Are there relationship between the residential area of students and their academic performance? c. To what extent does socio-economic status of parents influence the academic performance of students? d. Are there any relationship between size of the family and the student’s performance? 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS Home: This could be seen as a place where one lives especially with ones family. Family: This is a group of people who are related to each other, especially father, mother and children. Background: The traits of ones family it can also be seen as the family way of life. Performance: To carryout something better improve in ones study.
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