1.1 Background of the Study
Management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. Organization cannot succeed without due recognition and appreciation of people through whom any task is accomplished. Nkereuwem (1986) observed that human factor is a major component of enhance the growth of any organization. Therefore, their presence as well as their input must be both recognized and encouraged for the sustenance of growth in the said organization. To understand the critical importance of people in the organization, is to recognize that the human element and the organization are synonymous.
Edem and Lawal (1994) observed that managers, supervisors, human resource specialists, employers and citizen in general are concerned with ways on improving job satisfaction. They all agree that job satisfaction is an essential tool for job performance. In his contribution Assam (1982) advised that it is imperative for human resource managers to beware of those aspects within an organization that might impact employee’s job satisfaction and enhance them. The reason is that in the long run the result will be fruitful for both the organization and employees. All well managed organization usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organizations do not look to capital investments, but to employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals.
Despite the large number of teachers employed by government, teaching does not seem to be very effectively done. In the past it was blamed on the enumeration and other entitlements which were poor and unattractive to motivate teachers for effective teaching especially when compared with better-paying jobs in companies and industrial organizations. Also, with the progressively-rising cost of living, teachers were not able to compete with other workers who earned fat salaries and buy in the same market. People mockingly told teachers that “teachers’ rewards are in heaven”. The things that makes for this low esteem of secondary school teachers were poor and irregular payment of salaries, poor working condition of service, lack of recognition in the society, lack of encouragement and denial of some allowances from the government. Following these ill treatments, Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) embarked on strikes after strikes which brought little or no good to teachers. Between the year 1962 and 1976, the prospects of teachers started to unfold as five commissions were set up to tackle the problem of working conditions for the teaching service in Nigeria. The commission, which looked into teachers’ service conditions, were the Morgan in 1963, Adefarasin in 1964, Asian in 1975, Adebo in 1970 and the Udoji commission in 1975. Teachers benefited from each of these commissions and as they climbed a new ladder of hope, they emerge better than before.
Teachers at this time were filled with happiness and still do, as they enjoy regular salary payment, leave grants, promotion, study leave with/without pay, duty post allowances, free accommodation, vehicle loan, allowances for special skills like science teachers allowances and other improved conditions.
Luban (1998) posited that there are three important dimensions to job satisfaction:
• Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meets or exceeds expectations. For instance, if organization participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department by receiving fewer reward they will probably have a negative attitude towards the work, the boss and even their co-workers. The other hand, if they feel they are being treated very well and being paid equitably, they are likely to have positive attitudes towards their jobs.
• Job satisfaction represents several related attitude which are most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective response. these to Luban (1998) include: the work itself, prompt payment of salaries, rewards, co-workers attitudes, in service training and promotion.
• As Ebru (1995) also observed, Job satisfaction of any teacher depends on the economic, social and cultural condition in a given Country. A teacher who cannot get a sufficient wage will be faced with the problem of maintaining his or her family’s life. This problem puts the teacher far from being satisfied. Lack of job satisfaction as observed by Jamal (1997), is also a predictor of quitting a job. Sometimes workers may quit from public to the private sector. And at other times, the movement is from one profession to another, often considered a greener pasture. There is no secret that without improving the condition of service of teachers, the objectives of secondary education may not be realized. service
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teachers have many needs which must be satisfied through conditions of service attached to the teachers’ employment. Teachers use these benefits which include; monthly salaries, allowances, promotion or advancement, among others to improve themselves and it is assumed that when all entitlements due to teachers are made available and on time. They will be happy with their teaching jobs. When teachers are able to solve their problems, it will reflect in their attitude to as jobs they will be more effective in all teaching activities.
An improvement in teacher’s condition of service could affect students’ academic performance. This will continue water down our education standard. The problem of the study is to determine the condition of service and teachers job satisfaction in Secondary Schools in Uyo local Education Committee, Uyo.