The World Health Organization (WHO)’s report on the circumstances of clinical facilities in developing countries indicates that, there is considerable an inefficient delivery of medical services to the rural inhabitants where the services are needed; these services are also very expensive and not affordable to the average citizen. This has raised inadequacies such as prolonged suffering and even death. The slow process of diagnosis trial and error of diseases can be disastrous when a patient is at the advanced stage of a disease. Here we propose an automated system that can aid the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and suggest adequate drug prescriptions and treatment. To achieve this, an extensive review on related diseases was reevaluated and a common type (gonorrhea) was used as an exemplary study. This is based on the Waterfall Methodology. The system was implemented using web-based technologies. PHP was used for front-end designs while MySQL was used for data storage. The paper shows a system that is most effective and has a fast way of diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted diseases, which serves as a great relief for the doctors and even non-experts in the field.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection due to Neisseria Gonorrhoea (the gonococcus) , which effects primarily the anterior urethra in the male and the urethra and cervix in female. In recent years there has been a great increase in the cases of gonorrhoea throughout the world; approximately 60,000 cases are seen annually in the clinics of England and this figure is even higher in the case of Nigeria and other African countries. After three to five days incubation period in male, the following symptoms and signs will be observed; Dysuria, Urethral discharge (i.e Seropurulent becoming purulent and yellowish) Reddening of urethral meatus etc. Gonococcal protitis common in male homosexuals and is often symptomless. In female, Gonorrhoea is frequently a symptomatic and may never be diagnosed on clinical grounds. Almost three quarters of all female patients attend initially as contacts of male cases and not because of their signs or symptoms. The signs and symptomsin female includes symslight dysuris, slight or moderate vaginal discharge, which is often unnoticed by patient, reddening or acute erosion of the cervix, mucopurulent cervical plug, copious vaginal discharge is more likely to due to concomitant trichomonal vaginities and lower abdominal pain and tenderness is also present, with thickening and tenderness of the affected tube on bimanual palpation. Infertility following bilateral gonococcal salpingitis is now uncommon.
In today’s global economy and competitive environment, Information Technology (IT) is becoming a widely accepted tool for multi-faceted development in all fields. Information Technology (IT) is the bedrock for national survival and development in a rapidly changing global environment. The use of IT on individuals, organization and society is changing everything. The growing usage of IT is rapidly spreading through every sector; its permeating effect is noticeable in institutions, government establishments, business organization, homes and offices etc. The implication of these developments is obvious for the Nigerian societies in the sense that traditional way of doing things must give way. Health Information Management is one of the key factors that contribute to the strengthening of health care delivery in every country. Reliable Health Information Management leads to timely health policies and planning, which improves the general health status of a country, as well as, serving as a vital element for individual health facilities in managing and improving healthcare delivery (Teviu, Aikins, Abdulia, et al., 2012). The use of Information Technologies (ITs) in improving the general management of health records cannot be downplayed. This is affirmed by the ability of ITs to capture, store, retrieve, analyze and transmit large volumes of health records across various locations (Norman, Aikens&Binka, 2011). The adoption of ITs in healthcare delivery, which could generally be referred to as E-health, has not only been crowed generally as eminent in improving the reliability and effectiveness of health records, but it has also been gloated for strengthening healthcare delivery systems through its various tailor-made innovative applications and program such as the Electronic Health Records (Yusif& Soar, 2014).
Although the use of IT’s in healthcare delivery is not a new global paradigm, its adoption and promotion has particularly become relevant in resource constraint developing countries whose healthcare systems are characterized by severe financial, infrastructural, technical and human resource constrictions (Yusif& Soar, 2014). Studies conducted in various developing countries report that the use of ICTs in healthcare delivery leads to better access to healthcare facilities on the part of both patients and healthcare professionals and improved quality of healthcare delivery, which consequently translates into productive labour and the development of the country as a whole (Khan, Shahid, Hedstrom & Anderson, 2012; Cecchini & Scott, 2003; Oyeyemi & Wynn, 2014).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
To identify the problem, we look at current trend in information technology. The world’s information technology is rapidly changing, thanks to the likes of Bill Gates and his cohorts of Microsoft Corporation and International Electronic (INTEL) of U.S.A. In developing countries like Nigeria, the case is contrary, we see a different trend in science and its development altogether. While some private and government hospitals are now computerized most especially in areas like X-Ray services, Laboratory services and Ultrasound services, the STD units, which have not been much computerized, need an urgent attention.
Some of the problems adherent to the manual operation of the STD unit includes:
• Inaccurate diagnosis of the STDs, which may lead to wrong drug prescription, and at the end may lead to ultimate destruction of the organ involved, especially in women
• Bulkiness of the records because of the rate at which both the teenagers, youths and even the married go about patronizing prostitutes, engaging in unprotected sex and thereby, spreading the STDs.
• Monotonous and repetitive computation of data.
• Retirement, transfer or even death of human expert, which when happen goes with his/her knowledge.
Viewing the above-enumerated problems, Computer-Aided Medical Diagnosis for the Treatment of gonorrhoea or STD, as the title of this project study, becomes very imperative.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to bring together the combined knowledge of different human expertise and develop an automated system for the storage of such information which can aid the diagnosis of the above mentioned sexually transmitted disease and gives adequate drug prescriptions. To achieve the stated objective, the following specific objectives were laid out:
i. Develop a system using web-based technologies for the storage of information about gonorrhea
ii. To make the system services available for any user notwithstanding the user’s location
iii. To provide an easy to use interface were users will be required to answer questions based on their symptoms and give correct diagnosis and treatment options
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research covers Obinwanne Hospital Nkpor. The system is web-based hence it is going to run on a browser. The system has two major interfaces, first for the hospital administrators who add the necessary information concerning sexually transmitted diseases, their symptoms and relevant medication required. Second interface are for patients. Patients browse through the list of symptoms pertaining to a particular disease. They are meant to select symptoms which affect them and the system does the diagnosis based on user symptom selection and gives proper treatment or medication advice where necessary. An internet connection is required to give users access to the system irrespective of their location but for the purpose of this study, a localhost server will be used.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This thesis will be of utmost importance to medical practitioners. Implementing this system provides several possible advantages over paper records which include:
i. Reduction of cost: A vast amount of funds are allocated towards the health care industry. The computerized system is implemented, it will reduce the personnel cost.
ii. Improve quality of care: The implementation of automated disease diagnosis system can help lessen patient sufferance due to medical errors and the inability of analysts to assess quality.
iii. Promote evidence-based medicine: Computerized medical record provides access to unprecedented amounts of clinical data for research that can accelerate the level of knowledge of effective medical practices. Realistically, these benefits may only be realized if the systems are interoperable and wide spread (for example, national or regional level) so that various systems can easily share information.
iv. Record keeping and mobility: Automated systems have the advantages of being able to connect too many electronic medical record systems. In the current global medical environment, patients are shopping for their procedures.
v. Resort for Knowledge: This study can be of importance to scholars who are researching the field of automated disease diagnosis as it will serve as a reference point to them.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Hospital: is defined as the entity that provides the medical services to the patient in questioned at a given period of time which is basically curative and preventive and is offered in clinic unit x-ray/ ultra sound, laboratory and dental unit in the hospital.DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS SYSTEM FOR GONORRHEA INFECTION ANALYSIS