STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING WORKERS MORALE AND PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE TRANSPORT COMPANY (ENTRACO)
Improving workers morale and productivity. It is very pertinent to improve the workers morale so as to enhance greater level of productivity. Any organization that has no consideration on how the morale of the workers can be improved is liable to face a lower level of productivity. This strategy is adopted to increase the employer/employee relationship and if it can be achieved, it is by giving incentives like free transport allowance and in fact make them have a sense of belonging. Improving workers morale has been one of the main strategies adopted in most of our organizations in Nigeria because it is a process by which workers get motivated in order to enhance productivity services effectively. This prospect has been a broad area of concern to most of our existing firms or organizations who do not know how to get workers motivated thereby improving their morale and productivity.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Historical Background
1.3 Statement of Problem
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Extent of Workers Relationship with Top Management
2.2 The type of Leadership in an Organization that could Enhance Workers Morale and Productivity
2.3 Evaluation and Recognition Of Performance
2.4 Effects of Good Management Appraisal in Organizational Productivity
2.5 Improving Morale and Organizational Performance
2.6 Human Problems Encountered in work Place
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedures
3.5 Instrument of Data Collection
3.6 Validity of Instrument
3.7 Reliability of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Presentation and Analysis Of Data
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
Discussion, Recommendations and Conclusions
5.1 Discussion of Findings
5.2 Implication of the Research Findings
5.4 Suggestion for further Studies
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In every organization set-up, indispensable groups are discernible. These groups are known as the employees and the employers. They both constitute the point upon which the activity of the organization revolves.
It is said that area of the most common mutual interest where employees and employers may co-operate consciously the advantage of them consist of improving the morale of the worker, promoting efficiency and productivity, eliminating waste, reducing cost of maintenance.
Every organization is set up to attain in some definite and defined objectives. These objectives, which have to be accomplished through the instrumentality of the above mentioned groups often, include high productivity. To do this management has to organize its resources to achieve maximum performance.
One of this resources is of course, Human beings, while the out put of some factors like machine. May be predetermined activities involving people are not calculated precisely for even if they are, the result may vary, due to what is known as human element. How well a job is done depends on the rewards attached to the workforce. The word reward in its own stresses has complete meaning. But due to the result of research on human behavior in work situation, we are able to realize that wage or salary is mainly one of the important needs of the workers.
Every worker at work requires the organizations to treat him not just like a community but like a human being of high reasoning.
Beloc (1964) once wrote that workers have certain inalienable right as important as those of their employer and it is the duty of the organization to recognize these rights.
It is obvious that the workers have needs, which the work situation may or may not satisfy. The degree of satisfaction and dissatisfaction will be reflected not only in measured work but also in the morale of workers. The maximization of personnel contribution of the entire human element in an organization is the major objectives of the organization, which is implemented not only through the whole management process itself. How those people are organized directly influence their morale.
Historical Background Of Enugu State Transport Company Limited (ENTRACO)
Prior to (1988), the nations transportation system has to a large extent, been operated by private sector except in a few states like Lagos State Transportation Company, former Bendel (Bendel Line) and the then Eastern Central State (Oriental Line).
The introduction of the structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) by the Federal Military government put increased pressure on the economy, causing an increase in the prices of vehicles and spare parts, which virtually paralyzed the nations transportation sector. It also became evident that the public transportation system available was grossly inadequate to serve the nations needs.
In view of the this development, the federal military government launched the federal urban Mass Transit Program in (1988) and directed all state government to match the programme with action in September (1988), the government of former Anambra State launched the Transport Company of Anambra State (TRACAS) with in initial grant of about four million naira (N4,000,000) from the state government.
The creation of Enugu State from the former Anambra state in August 27, (1991), gave birth to Enugu State Transport Company Limited (ENTRACO). Enugu State Transport Company started operation with the initial buses and other assets it inherited from transport Company of Anambra State (TRACAS) following the sharing of assets and liabilities between the two sister companies. Enugu State Transport Company (ENTRACO) inherited fifty percent (50%) share of vehicles supplied by the federal urban Mass Transit Agency, (FUMTA).
It will be recalled that Governor Nnamani’s Government revamped the ailing Enugu State Transport Company (ENTRACO), which improved its performance tremendously. New buses were procured while massive refurbishments of dilapidated one’s where carried out, increasing the fleet of buses. The management of Enugu State Transport Company (ENTRACO) inherited only but one bus on the road, but now seventeen (17) buses have been refurbished bringing the road to thirty (30) including thirteen (13) more buses recently acquired. With this, the transport company have re-open many previously shut terminals and depots, thus creating job opportunity and attracting more revenues.
Today, Enugu State transport Company’s (ENTRACO’s) fleet of business has increased following the procurement and refurbishment of more buses.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.
Improving workers morale and productivity in an organization has been the main study or way to increase the shareholders wealth. The workers are forced with lots of problems concerning the strategies for improving workers morale and productivity in the organization and with regards to these problems; the researcher wants to find answers to the following problems/questions.
i. What are the ways of improving the workers moral?
ii. How can efficiency and productivity be increased in the organization?
iii. How can waste and redundancy be eliminated in the organization?
iv. What are the ways of reducing cost of maintenance at the same time improve the quality of services?
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The rationale for conducting this research work lies in the suspected high degree of dissatisfaction which reduces the workers morale towards productivity and its effects in the organization. For the purpose of this research, the researcher wants to ascertain the following:
a. To known if high commitment can help in improving organizational performance and also if social process of motivating workers to perform effectively can help.
b. To ascertain the ways through which workers morale and productivity can be improved in an organization.
c. To know how waste and redundancy can be eliminated in the organization.
d. To find out the ways at which the cost of maintenance be reduced and at the same time, the quality of service be improved. In order words, it is believed that at the end of this research work, the researcher will be able to know the strategies at which the morale and productivity of workers can be improved in the organization using Enugu State Transport Company Limited (ENTRACO).
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is very wide if it has to be carried out in all organization of any type of work or activity. This study is based on the strategy for improving workers morale and productivity in an organization; and Enugu State Transport Company Limited (ENTRACO) being the area of study.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: The cost of maintenance cannot be reduced and at the same time the quality of service can not be improved in an organization.
H1: Organizations quality of service can be improved and cost of maintenance can also be reduced.
H0: High commitment and social process of motivating workers to perform effectively cannot help to improve organizational performance.
H2: Social process of motivating workers to perform effectively and high commitment can help to improve organizational performance.
H0: Workers morale and productivity cannot be improved in an organization.
H3: Workers morale and productivity can be improved in an organization.
H0: Waste and redundancy cannot be eliminated in the organization.
H4: Waste and redundancy can be eliminated in the organization.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms used in this study should be taken to mean :
Strategies: Is human activity directed at managing any affair skillfully and favorable.
Strategy: Is a set of objectives, policies and plans that are taking together to define the scope of business enterprise and approach to survival and success. It is also a long term plan or policy.
Productivity: Is the increase efficiency and the rate at which the out-put are produce.
Morale: Is the spirit and state of mind of workers. It conditions the attitude and behavior of individuals towards their work.
Organization: Is the collection of people who come together to achieve a common goal with rules and regulations guiding them.
Therefore, the strategies for improving workers morale and productivity in an organization simply means better pay and conditions for an increase in out-put.