PUBLIC RELATION A TOOL FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION
A public relations is the acts of employing effective communication to build sustain and defend organization’s reputation among both its internal and external publics. Remarkably which any organizations public image receives a high rating bases on the foregoing attributes it translates into increased public confidence patronage good will higher profit growth peaceful and stable environment The researcher’s interest in this topic emanated from the above premise also as a student of communication would like to find out public relations as a tool for conflict resolution Questionnaire personal interviews personal association journals textbooks office record etc. were used to gather primary and secondary data which were then analysed using statistical techniques as percentage rate means table and charts. The population interest included both internal and external. Random sample method was adopted to elicit the reasons. Educational qualification of the respondents. Whether PHCN has public relations department the medium through which PHCN’S policies and . programmes are disseminated public relations has encouraged cordial relation between PHCN and its public PHCN and its social responsibility public relations as a tool for conflict resolution credibility building and earning and repartition for company are predicated on effective communication with the publics we all examine and discussed. However the result of the survey revealed that PHCN agrees that PHCN public relations is imperative in conflict management and resolution. The outcome of this research work will go a long way to portray the importance and imperative of public relations in both business and social lives. In the high of this some strong recommendations were made for those who care to know.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Contents
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of research problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research question
1.6 Research hypothesis
1.7 Conceptual and operational definition
Review of the literature
2.1 Sources of literature
2.2 Summary of literary review
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research design
3.3 Research sample
3.4 Measuring instrument
3.5 Data collection
3.6 Data analysis
3.7 Expected Result
Data analysis and result
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation for further study
5.3 Suggestion for further study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Before the dawn of modern civilization, our forefathers had a way of conducting themselves to ensure peaceful co-existence and mutual understanding which is the cordial point in public relations.
Activities mostly are carried individually because no one was a spokesman for the rest. But, as time went, further, individual got the initiative of forming union, interest group and organizations with impacts in regards to society. To alley the fears of the publics, organizations saw the need to create an arm that could give and take information from the public to retain their trust and co-operation.
According to David ideal (1983) public relations is the study of principle philosophies theories attitudes and the ideas which govern human activities. The public relation practitioner employs effective communications to build, sustain and defend his organization’s reputation among both its internal and external publics.
Along the line public relation among other things helps to formulate polices and also in planning which involves working out operational guidelines and strategies for attainment of the objective. It also assists in the policy execution and evaluation of the activities so far carried out. Also it helps to determine how good the publics are the appropriates of strategies and how well the execution has been effected; no double it is regards as a management function. The united kingdom president of international association of business communication Vicki Staveacre says in a book titled strategic communication that public relations actually contributes to bottom line. It supports the strategic objectives of the company relationship with internal and external public as well as stake holders.
According to study conducted by the association public relations contribute to the bottomlined by preventing the cost of conflict with its public in terms of strikes litigation and boycotts.
Public relations to achieve these ideas and goals for which an organization is established it must not be neglected that is adequate public relations planning and programming must be in line with that of the organization.
This planning programming and implementation must be evaluated by measuring in terms of their parameter audience, coverage response communication impact and process or influence. This is why cult lip Cortland centered in 1987 that the more likely they are to hold consistent position on that issue the more a person is emotionally involved in his beliefs on controversial statement.
Individual tend to see and respond to their pre-disposition if it is one of the basic principles of public relations that people are essentially rational by nature. They respond to facts and want the truth and they will literately find and act upon it.
Lawrence N Notle 1978 cloistered that human beings are not responsible and rational but rather emotional and which will eventually oppose to a law in favour of buying it’s product or love it’s advertisement but refuse to buy the advertise product but public relational knows how to get on with such situations. Relating to this Frank E. wash observes public relation as the planned effort to influence opinion through good character and responsible performance based on mutually two way communication in public relations which reaffirms that every group or segment has a situation that relates them together and which they have to agree upon with mutual understanding.
Employees, customers, suppliers, stake holders, communicators, government and academic staffs with its organizations and be able to be heard by the external body. Any thing shout of this amounts to a mere shot in the clark, bearing in mind the subject matter must be perfectly attended to in order to create a favourable opinion for the organization, their complaints must be looked into with dispatch by the public relation department.
Pat Bowman and Nigel E (1976) and noted that all complaint genuine or not must be acknowledged properly.
Therefore, customer are of immense vital to the public relations man and it’s environment should make constant effect to see its environment should make constant effort to se that they are comfortable. In today’s interdependence society, all institutions are vested with public responsibility.
Today’s public opinion though it may appear as high as air may become tomorrow legislation for better for worse, therefore, a wise firm makes public relation not simply of a staff department but a management so that every major business relation is considered from the stand point of its public importance.
Public relations is a management function of a continuing and planned character through which public and private organization and institution seek to win and retain the understanding and support of those with whom they are or may be concerned by evaluating public opinion about themselves in order to correlate as far as possible their own policies and procedures to achieve more efficient fulfillment of their common interest.
When a company’s public image receives a high rating it translates to increase public confidence patronage, good, will higher profit growth peaceful and stable environment.
Cuarles formbrum (1976) in his book reputation realizing value from cooperate image, puts it succinctly thus A reputation is invaluable because it informs us about what products to buy what companies to work for or what stocks to invest in against this background. This particular study focused on public relations as a tool for conflict resolution a case study of PHCN Enugu office. This study has become imperative in the high of the importance of the communications in this era of economic uncertainty and problem galore secondly by the recent development in the industry such as the permission of commercial carried to engage private sector in telecommunication business ie which participation will indirectly expose PHCN to some sort of competition. The level of development in the industry and the country in general coupled with the general misunderstanding of public relations calls for a study like this
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The decision to build a dam across River Kaduna in the area of Shiro, a small farmers villages near minna in Nigeria state that gives its name to the gorge where the project is located, has its origin in the survey carried out in the early 1950’s and relevant to the exploitation of the energy potential of the Nigerian River System.
The survey, led to the implementation of what is now 760 Mid Kainji and 540 MW Jebba power stations on the Niger and of this 600 MW Shirow power station an the Kaduna, are of the tribularies to the Niger. While the final design of the whole project was prepared for PHCN, formerly NEPA by Chast. Main international INC of Boston, mass USA, who where also responsible engineer for the supervision of all the contract required of the civil works was awarded by PHCN to the Halien from Torno SPA towards the end of the 1978. Other components of the projects were awarded to different companies, which included the Austrain from Voest Alphine for the supply and installation of the hydraulic turbines and governors, of the federal republic of Yugoslavia fro the supply and installation of the generator and excitation system, Mitsui Tioshuba of Japan for the generator transformer and GEC of the UK for the protective relays and control equip. High voltage swittgear and other switch yard equipment were supplied by Siemens AG of the Federal republic of Germany while CEI of Italy handled Electrical Installations and ancillary plant items. A Spanish company, Bynsa supplied the project cranes.
The shiroro hydroelectric project was managed by the engineering division of PHCN. Significantly under the leadership of the indefatigable engineer E.A Adeleye as project engineer.
As is characterized with many projects in Nigeria the Stioro hydroelectric project suffered delays and towards the end of the 1980’s was even installed for lack of funds. It was the intervention of Babangida that saved the situation when the appointed a presidential co-ordinator Engineer M.K. Ibrahim with full powers and directly answerable to him in November 1986 to complete the project.
During its first nineteen years of operation from January 1990 to December 2000, the station generated 41307 TWN of energy accounting for a plant capacity factor of 41.36%. As part of an effort to improve the reliability of power supply in the country, the machines as Shiroro power station have been equipped with the necessary control devices to a enable the station quickly store supply to a enable the station quickly store supply to a section of the PHCN grid following a total collapse of the power station or system. An important milestone in the history of shirow power station of recent has been the establishment at the site of a new national control centre equipped with state of art SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition ) and EMS (Energy Management System) facilities to supplement the other are at Oshogbos which was to ensure a more effective system of operation and control.
With the strong emphasis placed by the civilian administration of Presidnt Olusegun Obansanjo an addressing the energy short ages in the country and providing a stable power supply by December 2001, fresh contract were awarded for the retiabilitation of the remaining units which the country has technical history repaired in may, 1992 and repair together with 1st overhaul completed in January 2001.
BRIEF HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN NIGERIA
Public relations started in Nigeria around 1978 and was established by colonial administration. The man who spear headed this was harold cooper he was in charge of Lagos Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadon offices.
He was first assigned to interpreted government policies to the people with the aim of carrying out public relations functions for the government. These offices served as harld offices. During World War 11 cooper and his counter parts dealt with programmes and problems of the war.
Later on public relations was introduced into railway cooperation. At this time the service of eminent Nigeria journalist were sought for. After a while John stoker took over from cooper. He looked for the service of other veteran journalist like lijadu mobolaji. Between 1950 and 1960 major change like Nigeria Independence, the discovery of oil shift from trading to industrialization occurred, Big companies like UAC and shell BP were forced to start off public relation practice .
In 1959 this establishment brought awareness organization film shows and lectures, with popularity of public relations. In Nigeria in 1962 the public relations association of Nigeria was founded by late sam Epelle later on it became an affiliate of the British instituted of public relations with Chief Bob Okereke, Chief Abimbola, chief Bob Ogbuagu and Mr Ukpabi as pioneer members
1.2 STATEMENT OF PESEARCH PROBLEM.
Inspire of the fact that public relations is supposed to enhance the achievement of an organization goals many executives have mistake the forms of public relations are mere windows dressing vicious propaganda or lies unnecessary details and shallow gimmicks or just office expecting them to perform public relations wonders with their smiles and champs instead of realizing that planned public relations is more effective than five Alarm” public relation because planned public relations even plans ahead for crises or unexpected events very few people appreciate that public reactions is at the heart of modern day management. It is the management function which gives the same organized and careful attention to the assets of business done. Some of the public relation approaches adopted in some organizations have not been effective. As a result these methods public relation efforts fail and this effects the over all performance of the organization and its set objectives as a whole public relations as how different meaning to both professionals and non- professionals. It is played with misrepresentation even on the pages of news papers for instance in classified advert has this public relations officer required ability to ride motorcycle will be an advantage’’ one begin to gives what the company needed is a dispatch ride and not a public relations officer; Another has this attractive lady required a public relations officer who knows the undisclosed motives public relations is the same organization and careful attention to the asserts of good will as in gives to any other major asset of business. Therefore it becomes importer to undertake a study on public relations procedures and how it has adopted and used by PHCN to achieve its goals in the light of this the following form the statement of problem that this study intends to address
1 Does PHCN identify itself with social environment in which it operates
2 Has the achievement of PHCN objectives been hindered due to lack of planned and organized public relations
3 Which public relations tools has been most effective in reaching its public
4 In what ways have the used public relations in PHCN helped in achieving its goals.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The inability to achieve organizational set goals might not be unconnected with managers lack of vision to communicates effectively the goals or objective of the organization to the target public or it could be as a result of the in ability of the public to organization goals as regards the organization goals or objectives from management be it as it may the purpose for which the organization is set up suffers.
The Power Holding Company of Nigeria LTD (PHCN) is a federal government owned entity although fully commercialized and expected to provide integrated internal and external telephone services with its headquarters at Abuja. These are bound to be problems arising from information territorial office then to their substations PHCN as a business entity it is certain that problems arises at times crop up and as such hinders operations which at times retard progress and as they are different individuals who might in one way or the other have different opinion and ideal about PHCN. Below are the very objectives of this study.
1. The study is aimed at finding out whether public relations is a tool for conflict resolution in PHCN Enugu Territorial Office Is Taken As case study
2. It shall find out PHCN public relations focus and the gain from those focuses.
3. To ascertain the level of public awareness as regards PHCN’S policies and programmes.
4. To find out which public relations method has been most effective in getting things done and why management adopt such method
5. To ascertain whether public relations in PHCN a communication channel publication is a key to communication with PHCN.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In this period of problem galore era sequel the economic uncertainty many business out- lets are struggling to remain in business. Right from the time PHCN was given the responsibility of providing integrated internal and external service with autonomy as a commercial organization to support itself without government subversion.
PHCN have been graphing with a lot of problem ranging from the need to withdraw to remain in business considering the importance of telecommunication to the economy. PHCN cannot operate in the vacuum if it is to field the kind of benefits required. The survival of PHCN service inception has been a wonder worth documenting in the record of various changes that were aimed at enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the company to fulfilling its cooperate goals as well as development roles assigned to it by the federal government .
Therefore this study will help ascertain public relations in PHCN . it is worthy to note that business those day do not flourish by drums ordination unlike the authoritarian era to date it is a business of “how you make your bed so you lie on it” public relations is the heart of modern day business and for an organization to achieve its objectives it is imperative to create needed business atmosphere where information will flow to enable the better understanding of service rendered. This study will at the management of PHCN territorial office and PHCN in general because it is expected that suggestions made if taken an applied will enhance industrial peace interest and inter personal relationship between PHCN and its key public.
This study is also expected to assist management of other various institutions in making public relations a focus. Finally as an aspiring public relation practitioner this research based more on public relations will equally provide a basis conducted in the future.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a. Does public relations encourages cordials relationship between PHCN and its publics?
b. Does public relation services create cordial relationship between PHCN with its publics?
c. Are the consumer of PHCN satisfied with services of public relations?
d. That credibility building and earning a reputation for a company are predicated on effective communication with public
e. Through which median did you get to know you think electricity is imperative to development?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
In relation to the survey and observation of pr activities the following hypothesis are used to accelerate the validity and substantiation of facts
1. H1: The PHCN relationship between its publics is cordial.
Ho the PHCN relationship between its is publics are not cordial.
H2 PHCN will resolve use public relations to resolve conflict.
H0 PHCN will not resolve use public relations to resolve conflict.
H0: With the use of public relations services, PHCN consumer are satisfied.
H0: With the use of public relations services, PHCN consumer are not satisfied.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The importance and choice of supporting this work with a theory is informed by its adequacy in explaining communication theories which helps the effectiveness of public relations in an organization.
In addition to enquiring entry qualification of its members, a profession needs to be grounded in a body of theory, develop theories and testing how they work in practice enable practioners working in the field to make the best decisions about how they conduct their business, providing models to show how public relations works in theory can both validate practical public relations programs and obtain the need to take up a brand new way of tackling each project.
Perhaps because public relation is a relatively recent entreat into the academic works, most of the theoretical framework are researched properly.
Communication theory was borrowed from electrical engineering, game theory borrowed from the social sciences and gratification theory from the study of mass communication. All these theories help in planning a public relations campaign as graining and tunt’s models of public relations are evolutional.
Communication theories by theorist siebert is the explanation of some of the barrier in communication theory which help us understand how people adopt new ideas even in difficult issues.
Game theory by perse and dunn I sapplicable to media relations users and gratification theory which emphasizes towards why people choose the media they use.
Gratification theory propounded in 1940’s is the theory of public and the fine models of public relations which is used to plan public relations activities.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
PHCN should be given the avenue to achieve whatever set goals they have mappedPUBLIC RELATION A TOOL FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION