POWER INTERRUPTIONS AND BROADCASTING MEDIA PROGRAMMES IN ENUGU: CASE STUDY OF ESBS RADIO AND TELEVISION
The aim of this research is to determine the effect of electricity power supply interruption on electronic media user with particular emphasis on Television use and Radio.
Thus, its aim at determining its impact and its effects on the social and economic life of the television viewers / Radio listeners. To ensure that adequate and appropriate data were used in the analysis, data were collected through primary and secondary sources, these include questionnaire and interview on one had, and publication and republished paper on the other.
After analyzing the data, the following were made:
1. Television/Radio provides education entertainment and information to the audience (masses)
2. There is regular power interruption in Enugu metropolis
3. The power interruption hampers the educational and entertainment programmes as well as the dissemination of information by the television and Radio.
4. It also affects the social and economic life of the users adversely.
5. It inflicts damages on the Radio stations and Television stations.
6. It brings loss of Revenue to the media house.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of study
1.2 Statement of the research problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Research hypotheses
1.8 Conceptual and operational definitions of terms, conceptual definitions
1.10 Limitation of the study
2.1 Nature of television
2.2 The challenge of television broadcasting
2.3 Electricity supply in Enugu metropolis
2.4 The impact of power interruption on television use in Enugu metropolis.
184.108.40.206 Viewers’ reaction to electricity power supply interruption
3.1 Research methodology and design
3.3 Types of data
4.1 Data presentation and analysis
4.2 Test of hypothesis
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Electricity is used for various purposes: These purposes include domestic and commercial. Domestic use of electricity includes electric cookers, Television, Video Player, Laser, Fridge and other household appliances like Computers.
Today, one of the parameters for measuring the level of development in or across nations is the availability of such public utility as electricity. This is the general notion that any community that is not electrified is seriously underdeveloped, for this reason, almost all communities have embarked upon this development programmes, the chief aim of which is electrification.
Besides, one of the instruments for measuring the standard of living today is electricity consumption per family/person within a specific period of time. the higher the consumption, the better the standard of living. Electricity consumption in our houses increases with the increased use of electricity or electrical appliances such as Television set, Radio cassettes, Fans, Refrigerator or Freezers, Electric coils. Electric Iron, Air conditioners, Electric cookers, Amplifiers, Equalizer, Electric Grinders, Electric Showers and numerous appliances that are domestically used.
It has been established that life in the urban centers are more meaningful because of the constant use of these appliances made possible by the availability of electricity.
A study carried out by researcher on domestic unit of urban and regional planning in 1975 showed that people tend to cluster more in areas where electricity supply is steady than in areas where there is frequent interruption is supply. In the present circumstance, there is severe accommodation problem especially in the urban centers where people still prefer to live in area where there is adequate supply of electricity, also serves them in most of their commercial activities.
But, unfortunately, power interruption is now very common in the country, in heavily industrialized cities such as Aba, Onitsha, Port Harcourt, Kano, Kaduna, Lagos, etc. It is also stated that it’s no longer surprising to see that power failure last for weeks sometimes months, little or nothing is done by the authority concerned to rectify any problem in their lines, if such is reported to them.
Power interruption has been identified as one of the phenomena that could be regarded as common sabotage, especially when the failure or interruption is deliberated.
Electric Power Interruption is undesirable in our socio-economic system, for one reason, it causes disruption in the flow of economic activities. This involves disruption in the flow or in manufacturing, processing and services requiring electricity. The effects of such disruption on these activities are often adverse, as the people’s sources of livelihood are inhabited, while the power failure lasted.
On the social front, power fair\lure is known to cause undesirable situations. Apart from making social life dull, especially at night, it also causes untold hardship to the citizens or users.
One of the services, the government provided for the citizens is broadcasting through the electronic media. The electronic media mainly involves Television and Radio. Others are video, cinema, Tape and Audio, among all these; the Television and Radio have the greatest use, especially in Nigeria. Broadcasting is a powerfully instrument for achieving on national goal, the broadcasting media are used in providing education in relation to politics, economy, culture, health, technology for national development. They are very important disseminator of information and provision of entertainment, thus; power disruption means interruption of these essential roles of the broadcast media. This has adverse affects on the audience.
Television is now being incorporated into programmes by the African leadership as part of more integrated, long-term policy of socio development. In Africa the first monechrome television station was established in Ibadan in 1959 known as the Western Nigerian Television (WNTV) this was followed in 1960 by the establishment of Eastern Nigerian Television (ENTV) and the Kaduna Television (KTV) in 1961 in October 1975 the Jos Television started transmitting in colour, as the first in Nigeria.
Television can, by its very appeal command more audience than Radio medium because it combines the sense of sound (as utilized in radio medium and vision) as utilized in print media to produce a fascinating package of viewing audience.
This is one reason why the television is the most suitable channel or medium for effective educational broadcast and entertainment. It tries to bring the happenings outside and in the society to viewers within the coverage area, it entertains its various audience with programmes like sports, music, drama and religious activities.
But power disruption, puts a halt to these programmes causes the viewing audience some discomfort.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS
Power failure is now very rampant in our society. It disturbs the educational and entertainment programmes of the television and makes the viewing audience unable to receive the message, and information being communicated to them through the television. There are so many problems being encountered by the television users as a result of power disruption.
Firstly, it is now very difficult for the social and economic life of the audience to be improved, because enlightenment programmes being broadcast through television are often disrupted by electricity power failure.
Secondly, damages are inflicted on the people whenever power failure is followed by power restoration unheralded to electricity users.
Thirdly, power failure, especially prostrated disruption makes it difficult for the people’s standard of living to be improved because they are unable to use the electricity and electronic gadgets that help improve their lives.
Fourthly, the electronic media serves as perrejors of socio-cultural, economic and political development in out society. This is because they are powerful media for dissemination of development-oriented information.
As a result of power disruption the broadcast of these development programmes cannot be communicated to the electronic media users.
Finally, power failure also affects the electronic media house adversely. In addition to the damages it inflicts on their installations, it adversely affects their revenue generating programmes such as advertising, programme announcements etc.
It is against these backgrounds that this research is carried out to investigate into the problems of electronic media use in Enugu metropolis.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study, among other things include:-
1. To examine the impact of electricity power interruption on the effectiveness of the television as a means of education the masses.
2. To examine the impact of television as a means of disseminating information to the masses.
3. To examine the effects of electronic disruption on the social and economic life of the television users.
4. To find out if the television viewers in Enugu metropolis agree that they are affected by electricity power interruption.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significance in many respects.
Firstly, it is known that the broadcast media are a powerful means of improving the social economic and political life of the viewers. The significance of the study derives from the fact that it will highlight the impact of power failure on the lives of television users.
Since it hinders effective communication of the information, education and entertainment programmes to the user. There is need for a study of this nature that will find out the impact of such impediment on television users.
Secondly, the finding of this research will be useful to the government. It will provide the nations planners with information on the impact of electricity power interruption on the socio-economic life of television users. These include those who use the services of the television to promote their economic activities, the television stations that depend on commercial programmes for revenues and the viewere who receive education; information and entertainment through the television.
These research findings will therefore, show the need for the government to huge the authority of the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) to ensure electricity services through steady supply of electricity to such media.
Thirdly, the research findings will bring in focus the television viewers reaction to electricity power interruption and will appeal to the electricity authority to take measures necessary to improve their services.
Finally, the result of this research will provide data for students who may carry out related studies in the future.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers out television viewers and users in Enugu metropolis.
This includes residents of Enugu North and South Local Government Areas.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Does electricity power interruption affect Television programmes in Nigeria?
2. How do Television/Radio stations in Enugu cope with power interruptions?
3. What effects have power interruptions on Television and Radio programmes and programming?
4. What impact have these on Television viewers /Radio listeners?
5. Does electricity power interruption affect the full usage of Television/Radio satisfying the viewers?
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1. H1: electricity power interruption adversely affects television/radio programmes in Enugu.
H0: Electricity power interruption does not adversely affect television/radio programmes in Enugu.
2. H2: The social and economic life of Television and Radio viewers and users are adversely affected by electricity power interruption.
H0: The social and economic life of Television viewers are not adversely affected by electricity power interruption.
3. H3: The full use of Television/Radio is hampered by electricity power interruption.
H0: The full usage of Television is not hampered by electricity power interruption.
4. H4: The Television users in Enugu metropolis are affected by electricity power interruption due to the frequent power failure in the city.
H0: The Television viewers in Enugu metropolis are not affected by electricity power interruption due to the frequent power failure in the city
5. H5: Electricity power interruption affects the impact of electricity as a means of education to the users.
H0: Electricity power interruption does not affect the impact of television as a means of educating the users.
1.8 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Effects: The impact of an incident on somebody’s character belief or action
2. Electricity power: This refers to the force or energy generated by electricity with which objects are moved especially machines and electronic gadgets.
3. Interruption: This refers to a break in supply of the energy that drives the machines or move electronic gadgets.
4. Television viewer: This refers to have time and interest to watch television programming or use television to advertise one’s product.
1. Effect: This refers or can be categorized into positive, negative or neutral affects.
Positive effects are in line with the accepted societal standards and values or tend to affect the behaviour of user, along this line negative affects do not conform to accepted societal standards values and terns to discourage people from electronic media use.
Neutral affect refers to the situation in which electricity power interruption has no impact on the television users.
2. Television use: This is defined as having the interest and time to watch television programms or the use of television to inform thee viewers of the use of one’s economic activities
The following assumptions are made in this study.
1. That people feel had and dejected whenever electricity power interruption occurs in Enugu metropolisPOWER INTERRUPTIONS AND BROADCASTING MEDIA PROGRAMMES IN ENUGU