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  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:54
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Mass Communication Project Topics & Materials)



In this study, I tried to examine the mass media as regards to whether they have played a role in the resolution of the Ijaw and Itsekiri Crisis, which started as far back as 1997 up till date.  Hence this research work is carried out to determine to what extent the mass media could go in crisis resolution.

The first chapter contains the introduction, chapter two focuses on literature review, while chapter three is the research methods and research samples in data gathering.  Chapter is a comprehension analysis and data interpretations on the role played by mass media as a medium of crisis resolution in Ijaw and Itsekiri.  Chapter five summarises the entire work with some recommendations to it..





1.0.2            THE TITLE OF OLUSHIP

1.0.3            ECONOMIC SABOTAGE

1.0.4            ITESKIRI CLAIMS

1.0.5            IJAWS/URHOBO CLAIMS






1.6         ASSUMPTIONS









3.4         DATA GATHERING

3.5         DATA ANALYSIS


4.0         DATA ANALYSIS

4.1     RESULT

4.2         DISCUSSION


5.0         SUMMARY




1.0         INTRODUCTION

The disagreement between the Ijaw and Itsekiri of Warri metropolis started as far back as July 1997, and lasted through May 29, 1999, and since then has brought about an intercommunal and political tussles.  The Ijaws complained that the oil companies operating in the area could not embark on any development programme in that area.  Instead the oil companies decided to help the then Oku of Warri, thereby leaving the community in a devastating and helpless state.

These atrocious acts, which began in 1997 and lasted through May 1999 have recently been resumed.  To date, over 3,000 people including women and children, have been killed, their bodies desecrated.  Additionally, 30 villages and towns have been destroyed and burnt with tens of thousands of Itsekiri rendered homeless.  As the case between 1997 and 1999, both the federal government of Nigeria and then Government of Delta State have not acted to restore law and order, allowing the massacre and slaughter to continue unabated.

We have to take a look at some issues that brought about this community feud.


The transfer of council meant for the Ijaw clan of Ogbeli – Joh, Isaba and Abaranaty on the 13th of March 1997 to the Itsekiri and the citing of the headquarters in an Itsekiri settlement called Ogidigben in Wasrri North Local Government triggered off the conflict between the communities of Ijaw and Itsekiri since 1997.

The political issues involves land ownership tusses and the Urhobo’s testified that the ethnic conflict between Ijaw and Itsekiri in Warri North, South and South-West Local Government Areas was due to political and economic problems Chief Benjamin Okumagba stated that the Olu of Warri Ogiane Otuwase II is a ruler in exile and it is an abomination for a traditional ruler to buy a piece of land for his palace.  Chief Okumagba said that the tehn present Olu, Erejuwa II begged his father (Okumagba father) for a piece of land.  Also Okumagba stated that the federal government succumbed to the bidding of the Olu of Warri Ogiane Atuwase II and his Itsekiri people in continuing to make the Itsekiri rule Warri metropolis through river-rine wards of Ode – Itsekiri Obodo and Ibeji.

1.0.2            THE TITLE OF OLUSHIP

Going memory lane, the changing of the title of Olu of Itsekiri to the Olu of Warri in 1952 by Chief Obafemi Awolowo’s Action Group Government is one of the remote causes of the tribal feud, because the Urhobo and the Ijaw in Warri sees it as a punitive action against them.  Between 1960 – 1966 the Ijaws and Urhobo were against the then Action Group.  Tendering a letter of 13thSeptember 1952 from the acting civil secretary to the government Chief Okumagba insisted that subsequent move by the royal father to create chieftaincy title from the Itsekiri to reflect Warri Communal land trust by the then Action Group of the Itsekiri was the genesis of the continuous communal feud in Warri.

1.0.3            ECONOMIC SABOTAGE

The Ijaws also complained that the oil companies operating in those areas do not embark of development programmes in their areas.  They went further to say that instead of developing the Ijaws and Urhobos community where the oil company is situated, the companies collaborated with the Olu of Warri and decided to embezzle the money, for example the case of Ngbodo community who took the oil companies to court for allegedly paying the Olu of Warri the sum of one hundred million (N100m).  this money could have been used in development of these communities. 

Though the arrowhead of the discount was the then relocation of the Warri South Local government headquater from Ogbehijoh in 1997, this in which many live and properties were lost in the Warri metropolis.

1.0.4            ITSEKIRI CLAIMS

Subsequently, there are counter claims on the issues of the ownership of Warri from all ethnic group corners.

They also cited a Supreme Court judgment suit numbers Sc/37/73/3.  In  the same way the Itsekiri regard the Urhobo as customary tenants of Itsekiri.  This was in line with statement of a prominent Itsekiri leader and retired judge of the defunct Bendel State, justice Franklin Atake on the 13th June 1997.   Atake claimed that the Ijaw came from their home – land of Western Ijaw, while the Urhobo migrated from Agbarho-Otor.

1.0.5            IJAWS/URHOBO CLAIMS

More so the Ijaws and Urhobo also have their claims; for example they refer to Itsekiri claim as a repeat of the Itsekiri and the Olu’s usual false propaganda and reckless intimidation of government functionaries over the Warri Crisis.  Chief Okumagba stated that every human being has a homeland and that the Olu and his Itsekiri leader homeland is in Ode – Itsekiri and their respective villages not in Warri metropolis.  He also stated that the Olu and his Chief are strangers in Warri.  He cannot lay claims to a square metre of land acquired through inheritance as compared to his humble self and other Urhobos, like situations whose landed property in Warri metropolis are acquired through inheritance for a period spannig 600 – 650 years.

Recently, the motive of Ijaw, who number about 8 million is very clear.  They are isntent on annexing and occupying oil rich Itsekiri land, should their genocidal attrack against Itsekiri, a very small monority, succeed.  Theis territorial expanionist drive is designed to leverage both teir demand for increase control of oil-derived revenue and threats of secession from the Federal Republic of Nigeria, a terrorist move that compromise supply to the United States.


The relocation of Warri South Local Government headquarters from Ogbehijoh to Ogidigben on 13th March 1997 by the military government of Late General Sani Abacha.  Other news reports on the announcement follows broadcast by the media resulted to protests and demonstration by Ogbeh-ijoh prople.  More so mass media’s function is to educate the masses, especially the conflicting communities on the negative implications of such crisis persuasion functions is another function of the mass media.  The masses should be persuaded to eschew violence and embrace peace organizing special programmes for the people to watch can do this.


Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the contribution of the mass media in the resolution of Ijaw/Itsekiri Crisis.  More so, examine if mass media organized specific programme to help resolve the crisis, if there is any specific programme designed for that purpose, the extent is to meet the need of feuding communities and help to resolve the crisis.

Nevertheless, mass media reported the grievance of the communities and the remote causes of the crisis; it was concerned about the grievances the communities on continuous basis.  Therefore, these are the areas to be determined by this study.  The effort mass media made to improve the socio-economic and political development of both communities is equally to be determined by this study.   More so, there are aims/objectives of media, if the society is deprived of media, the society will mostly feel the impact of the observe of the media.

Therefore, the extent, which the media can help the society is a vital issue.  The individual is placed in a certain social/physical environment, which he assimilates through a higher form of perceptions, stocking item later in his memory where they make up the actual content of his brain at each moment.  The main channel which acts as a relay between the environment and the individual are the mass media.


These research questions will reflect in the questionnaire.  Responses ill be elicited from the respondents in order to confirm where mass media played any role in the resolution of Ogbeh-ijoh/Itsekiri crisis the research questions are:

1.    What has been the contribution of the mass media in the resolution of Ijaw/Itsekiri?

2.    What specific programme has the mass media organized to change attitude and behaviour of the conflicting communities?

3.    Did these programmes meet the needs of the feuding communities?

4.    Did mass media report grievance of the communities or is it only when there are conflicts?

5.    Does mass media care about the grievances of the communities’ remote causes of conflict?

6.    What effort has mass media made to improve the socio-economic and political development of both communities?


To effectively ascertain the role of mass media in crisis resolution of Ijaw/Itsekiri crisis, the following hypothesis was tested.

H0:    The mass media had not contributed meaningfully to the resolution of Ijaw/Itsekiri crisis.

H1:    The mass media contributed meaningfully to the resolution of Ijaw/Itsekiri’s crisis

H0:    The mass media have not organized programmes to change attitude and behaviour of conflicting communities.

H1:    The mass media organized programmes to change attitude and behaviour of conflicting communities.

H0:    The mass media does not care about the grievance of the communities

H1:    The mass media cares about the grievance of the communities.

H0:    The mass media does not care about the grievances of the communities only when they are conflicting.

H1:    The mass media cases about the grievances of the communities only when they are conflicting.



According to the Advance Learner’s Dictionary, relocation is the moving into a new place or area.  The relocation of population, this has to do with the compulsory evacuation with resettlement in a new area.


Dictionary defines conflict as to be in disagreement, fight, struggle, and quarrel.


According to the same dictionary resolution is having the quality of being resolved.  Fixity or boldness of determination.

1.6        ASSUMPTION

From the research hypothesis it is assumed that the mass media did not contribute positively to the Ijaw/Itsekiri crisis resolution and this had prolonged the speedy resolution of the crisis.


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Type Project
Department Mass Communication
Project ID MAS0705
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 54 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

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    Type Project
    Department Mass Communication
    Project ID MAS0705
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 54 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

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