AN ANALYSIS OF NEWSPAPER READERSHIP PATTERN AMONG THE YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF I.M.T STUDENTS)
This study was carried out to determine the Newspaper Readership pattern among the youth. This arose because it was thought that the youths did not read newspapers and their use of other media was minimal.
Against the background of seemingly lack of readership among the youths, questionnaires were drawn and administered to ascertain the extent of reading habit formed by this group.
The students of the Institute of management and Technology Enugu were used as case study. This was good sample as they represent the youths found all over the country.
They all experienced similar socio-economic dilemma. They are also faced with financial crisis as well as education problems.
250 respondents were sampled randomly and data analysed and presented as percentages in frequency distribution tables.
The work traced the reading habits found among the youths. Research questions and hypotheses were used as guides for analysis and conclusions respectively.
The work reviewed other literature on the topic and found out what their results were. The conclusions drawn were based both on other related works of literature and the results gathered form the questionnaire.
The result showed that there were indeed readership patterns among the youths. They showed that students read newspapers and they also buy them on regular basis. The majority of the respondents bought and read when they found convenient. Only a small group hardly bought or read.
Results also showed that students who bought were both more financially and academically favoured than others that had lower reading habit.
It was also found out that sex was on barrier to who read and what was read. The female students read more than the male students, but they both reads the same contents in their favourite newspapers.
Male youths read entertainment news in equal proportion with the female youths. There was also equal reading proportion in contents that have to do with features politics, world news, etc.
At the end of the study, recommendations were made about activities that will help the youth to develop their readership pattern for the newspaper and other media.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 RESEARCH SAMPLE
3.4 DATA COLLECTION
3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The explosion of youth in the population of Nigeria generally has been a cause of interest to the economists as they study consumerism.
This branch of economics helps to determine the consumer patterns and behaviours
Communication is very vital to the growth and development of the psycho-social make-up of a man. This in turn equips the total man in fitting into healthy patterns modeled for definite objectives in national polity.
The background against which this study is being set up includes issues like literary level, the role of the newspapers (interest for the development of man). Other primary concerns are the factors that influence the purchase of the Newspapers, factors that influence the Newspapers, factors that influence the choice/preference of news content.
Sex dependent variables among the study of age brackets, etc. It is in view of this that a remote understanding of the history, mechanics and principles of communication is deemed vital to this study.
Since the existence of man varies, the other forms of communication have been invented to include intra/inter-personal, group, public and mass communication with each characterized by peculiar and specific channel of information dissemination. These channels have further been modified and divided into radio. Television, satellite and the Newspaper, magazine, books. The newspaper being one modified channel of information dissemination, present the element of research for this study.
Because of its important role in the development of the man. Since its invention in the neighbourhood of the 17th century, it has undergone changes in both content and form. These aspects are worthy of note as they are structured to the readership pattern of the cross section of the society.
The mechanics of communication, which include pictures, cartoons and literate information, become a remote but powerful factor in creating an interest – pool from which a semi-pattern consequently emerges.
The principle of communication in the sense used in this work speak only of the laws of good communication, some of which are good grammar and syntax appropriate use of literary devices that are not hackneyed etc.
The above subject quickly recommends themselves to the intelligence quotient of any readership. This forms the determinant in newspaper consciousness as it is well understood that over and above poring at pages of newspapers, the element of habit “delicious relish” of contents is fundamental to habit forming. A highly literate as well as versed section of the society can literally weave the seemingly meaningless black print into fabric of pleasure because of level of exposure to the elements of literary appreciation.
In the present work, the words readership patter is understood as the cross section of the society that find time out of interest and habit to indulge in the act of gathering information from newspapers. This understanding is only elementary as readership assumes a wider scope. The present study will seek to analyse comparatively the subject matter from the background of the more complex definition. In view of this readership among youths in general and students of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu in particular, present a peculiar phenomenon that arouses interest. More serious emphasis. I laid on habit-oriented readership pattern – a pattern which is more sustaining. This is not to say that this readership pattern, which is more sustaining. This is not to say that this readership pattern influences more positively than the demand and supply curve. In fact, both readership patterns combine with other more or less impressive patterns to forma complex. And this is what actually influences the demand and supply curve. 4
An easily recognizable or predictable trend creates comparisons, which are made to create a model hypothesis that will help in decision-making.
Last but not the least, comparative analysis here, refer to relationship existing between understudies elements from the background of stocktaking. In comparative analysis presented in this work, comparison models have been created from which appreciable and well defined result are got. The following are the comparison models employed in this work.
(a) Sex oriented comparison model
(b) Age oriented comparison model
(c) Finance oriented comparison model
(d) Education oriented comparison model
(e) Popular trend oriented comparison model
(f) Politics oriented comparison and
(g) Religious conviction oriented comparison models.
A. Sex Oriented comparison model: There is no doubting the fact that the kind of sex goes a long way to determine emotional responses to news content. It is in this view that this study weeks to investigate the determining factors that make a particular sex to be more or less responsive to news contents in newspaper. Equally, the male – female ratio among the student readership will be determined and critically studied.
B. Age oriented comparison model:- From and earlier assertion, the age brackets have been defined among which this study is to be undertaken namely: 16 – 26 years age range. The study will seek to discover the more responsive age group among these brackets. A bird’s view of the problem anticipated under this model is that hypothetically, the upper age bracket appears to be more responsive for reasons that may be stated from the questionnaire whereas the lower group for other peculiar reasons, hypothetically may be less responsive to readings of newspaper.
C. Finance oriented comparison model: It is no secret in economics that as people’s spending power grow with their standard of living they can more easily afford to indulge in less “necessaries”. It will not be out of place for a hungry man to spend his last N30 for a little lunch than to buy a newspaper and go hungry. This becomes more acute with the student who always run a budget line.
D. Education oriented comparison model: All things being equal, the more educated one is, the more easier it is for him to appreciate as well as extract information from the newspaper. Hence one’s level of education, in this case the students go a long way to determining interests and habit in newspaper indulgence.
E. Popular Trend Oriented Comparison Model: This is a less serious model, as it is not sustaining. Nevertheless, when its cycle comes up, it can be quite impressive. By trend we mean a particular response due to a bias in society. An example of a trend could be seen in old early century Newspaper picture of the English gentry where it is fashionable and popular to take snapshot with newspaper in hand spread or folding.
F. Politics Oriented Comparison Model: Nationalism and patriotism can compel ardent readership from patriots, as they prefer their own local newspapers. It is under such a model that we see customership done to certain newspapers that advance the cause of independence.
G. Religious Conviction Oriented Comparison Model: Under this model, we find people who for one religious conviction or the other prefer some kinds of news contents in newspapers which presence may persuade or dissuade them from doing custom to newspaper publishers.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of embarking on this study was prompted by observations made by earlier researchers, that the youths are generally not information conscious and it is only the males among the youth that try at all to obtain information, specifically through the print media like newspapers.
This study wants to know if summaries and conclusions of other works are also applicable to youth with high level of educational exposure.
The work wants to find out if the new socio-economic status of the females, their new political awareness and orietation have affected their readership patterns. It also aims at finding out if it is only the female youths that still read entertainment and family base materials in newspaper or if the males have been affected by changes in the society and why their sudden interest.
1.3 PROBLEMS STATEMENT
Information is very crucial to the development of any country and it is obtained through the mass media. The youths are younger generation of the nation who will help in running and development of affairs in the country. So information and the youths are two sides of the same coin.
Despite the truthfulness of the above statement, the youths have been accused of having an allergy towards information dissemination and collection. Yet the important of information to them cannot be overemphasized. Certain factors have contributed negatively or positively to development of scientific as well as information consciousness among the youth.
It is in the light of this problem that we have to:
(a) Determine the problems of the percentage of the youths that fashioned them to
(b) Evaluate the problems of the percentage of the youth that read newspaper and difficulties that fashioned them to read the contents they read.
(c) With the evaluation of this problem, we shall find out if the youth consider picking and reading newspapers important or not to their economic and intellectual development.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will help the newsmakers to know the demography of their audience. With the results obtained, they will know the materials that are to retain or remove from their news content.
The study will help to find out the problems the youth grapple that have made them lose interest in buying and reading newspapers. It will also help the media to know how to reach out to the youth so as to create good reading habit in them. The project will help editors and publishers to ascertain the psychological disposition of the youth audience for effective information dissemination.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) Does educational and financial positions affect newspaper readership among the youths?
2) Does the male youths read more newspapers than female youths?
3) Does the female youths read more of entertainment news than their male counterparts?
4) Does age affect newspaper readership among the youths?
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(A) IDENTIFICATION OF VARIABLES
(iii) Newspaper contents
The independent variable here is sex while readership and newspaper contents are dependent variable.
(B) CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONS
Sex: This means being made of female. It also means differences that exist between male and female or male and female as a group. This term as well means the sum total of characteristic, which distinguish male from female.
Readership: This means the position of being a reader, or the number of persons who read a particular article or material. It also means being in a position to pursue or understand written or printed matter.
Newspaper Content: This means that which is contained in the volume of a newspaper. The amount of substance or work a newspaper can hold for example fashion, features articles, cartoons etc.
C. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:
Sex: Apart from the usual definitions of sex as being a gender of a particular specie, this word as used in this project is particularly defined as gender in terms of specific peculiarities.
This is to say that not anybody belonging to the human species can fall into this definition. By peculiarities, we mean variables like age and education, this term also include different characteristics or psychological make-up that affects their perception of materials which they come across.
Readership: By quality of being a reader, we mean the ratio of time and dedication given to a newspaper as well as the degree of information got from the publication to total time used or interest shown in other occupations. This also refers to the amount of money a reader is willing and is able to spend on newspapers on an established pattern of consistency despite all odds. Readers do no imply people who subscribe to newspapers but those who subscribe as well as read the newspaper.
Newspaper Content: This word is conceived to imply interesting articles and news. Materials with particular attention paid to the individual reader. That is to say that what interests one person will not be what interests the other person. Again, the peculiarities like seen earlier are conditioned by certain demographic factors (like age sex, educational attainment, finances, etc), which make a large impact on things devoted time to content here, is the total of what an individual is prepared to read in a newspaper and in what order he or she reads.
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES:
H1: Educational and financial positions are likely to affect newspaper readership among the youths.
H0: Educational and financial positions are not likely affect newspaper readership among the youths.
H2: Male youths are likely to read the newspapers more than female youths.
H0: Male youths are not likely to read the newspapers more than the female youths.
H3: Female youth are more likely to read newspapers than male youths
H0: Female youths are not likely to read the newspapers more than the male youths.
H4: Males youths are likely to read entertainment news than female youths.
H0: Male youths are not likely to read entertainment news than female youths.
H5: Age as a factor is more likely to affect the newspaper readership among the youths.
H0: Age as a factor is not more likely to affect the newspaper readership among the youths.
It is assumed that both male and female students of the Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu are literate. It is also assumed that the students possess a similarity of psychological as well as other dispositions with the rest of the youths that live in the various part of the country.
1.10 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
This chapter would not be passed out without citing theoretical framework that is very relevant and essential to the study. The individual differences theory attempts to answer this. In this theory, it tries to x-ray that no individuals are alike even if they are twins. Since the study borders on youths generally, that means the level of media perceptive which each of the youth is attuned to. We have many youths, precisely, the students of the I.M.T, Enugu for which the study was based. Individual is exposed to the mass media according to its psychological setting and may perhaps retain what he/she might have read or dismiss them.
In the study, an attempt must be made to establish on how our youths react to the media exposure in relation with their actions in the society. The full investigation could be arrived at by the time the researcher completes this onerous task facing the work of this nature. Individual differences led to what we call preferences to the medium of one’s choice. While some prefer radio to TV, others may opt for the newspapers instead of magazines. The determinants of the two are the basis of this contention hence theory in question.