THE INCIDENCE OF BAD DEBTS AND CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study:
1.2 Statement of problem:
1.3 Objective of the study:
1.4 Significance of the study:
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study:
1.6 Definition of terms:
2.0 literature review:
2.1 Government control over credit:
2.2 Types of loan offered by the bank:
2.3 Causes of bad debts:
2.4change of bad debt:
3.0 Research design and methodology:
3.1 Research design:
3.3 Types of data used:
3.4 Location of data:
3.5 Method of data collection:
4.1 Summary of findings:
5.1 summary recommendation and conclusion:
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In a modern Economy, there is a distinction between surplus economics units and the deficit economics units and in a separation of the saving investment mechanism. This has necessitated the existence of financial institutions whose jobs includes the transfer of funds from savers to investor. One of such institution is the commercial Bank.
The commercial Banks are regarded as banks because they create money. They do this by establishing chequing account for their customers for whom they create demand deposited and pay out cash on demand.
Traditionally, the essential features of a commercial bank lies on the service it renders to its numerous customers. These services basically includes deposite stabilization, credit management money transmission, and consultancy services etc. however their most vital function and which has a great impact on the economy as a whole is credit.
The primary function of commercial bank is the extension of credit to worthy borrowers.
Commercial bank are rendering a great financial services. Through their actions production is increased, capital investments are expanded and a higher standard of living is realized.
Additionally, this functions are very important in that they distinguish bank from all other financial institutions and very unique position to manipulate the level and volume of demand deposite by limiting borrowing.
Credit extension management is one of the most intricate function performed by banks. This is so because loan portfolio is the greatest risk in the banking activity. Hence if due care and prudence is not exercised, it might result in bad debts. Bad debts are normal business expense and must be charged as such when calculating the profit and loss for the period.
Besides, business sin the other hand cannot exist without debt. It is now impossible to achieve any thing weather as an individual or as a group of person without going into some form of debt or the other. It seen to be generally agreed that debt is essential to business.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The volume and value of bank loans which have became classified has continued to increase even a faster rate than the increase in bank lending. This has adverse effect on banks since it effects their cash flow and impairs their profitability. It is believe that most debts go bad because of the inadequacy of loan management and recovery procedure of banks.
The problem of this study is to appraise the lending and credit management policies of a typical commercial bank union bank of Nigeria Plc with a view of finding the cause and consequences of bad debts in banks.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objective of this study is to appraise the lending procedure and loan management of banks using union bank of Nigeria plc as a test case with a view fof highlighting the effectiveness and adequacy or otherwise of the credit management policy of Nigeria Banks and in reducing the occurrence and consequences of bad debts.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The difference between success and failure in the banking industry’s is in the effective management of the banks loan and advance efficient loan management is vital to the protection of asset and the achievement of adequate return to investments on the technique of lending the methods of securing such lending and the pit falls that awaits the unwary banker; bys comparison there appears to be very little imprint on the subject of loan management and recovery. A study on this subject will therefore be a welcome addition to the existing volume of banking literature.
Effective loan management recognize that beyond the application of sand banking principles whenever a loan is made, there is need for urgency in appreciating the point when loan begins to look doubtful arriving at a decision as to the appropriate action and in taking that action. This will enable the bank to at best obtain full repayment including accrued interest.
In the face of increase competition among banks, future profits are likely to be harder to come and since bad debts are a charge against profit. It is appropriate that we review the methods proportions and margin of lending to bad and doubtful debts.
Hence the significance if this study to bankers. Beside the bankers more than ever before will appreciate an appraisal of their lending and control mechanism now that are expected to lend under tight monetary conditions, with it negative effects on investment outcomes.
The economy as a whole will benefit from the study because if the level of bad debts is reduced, bank will be left with more profits to enable them make the expected contribution to the development of the economy.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The standard of which this research is written is to cover a wide and reasonable ground. This wide coverage will help us to understand fully the study of credit management. To under score this point efforts were made to cover such are, as that will make the work meaningful.
In view of these the research has connived on the knowledge gathered from textbooks of accountancy and finance ad some relevant Journals magazine. These were really explored by considering the ideas gathered in the write-up.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Bad debt:- These are loans that the borrowers are unwilling or unable to repay due to one reason or the other.
Credit management:- It is a money transmission and consultancy services etc.
Commercial Banks:- A bank means any firm incorporated and licensed by the central bank of Nigeria to carry on the business of banking.
FUNCTION OF COMMERCIAL BANKS
Foreign Exchange facilities
Providing Status Report