EFFECT OF STRESS ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN THE SERVICE INDUSTRY
Trying to match limited global resources against an ever increasing world population appears to be the crux of the matter. The spill out from this seemingly intractable problem has been the world wide rural urban drift that has invariably led to overcrowded and heavily populated cities with basic infrastructures and other social amenities being stretched almost to breaking point. Rising un-employment, high cost of living, high crime rate and the ever-widening gap between the rich and the poor are also spill-outs from the complex problem earlier mentioned. The disenchantment and disillusionment arising from the foregoing stressful conditions (especially among the poor) has been on the increase over the years (Brown, 1980).
Reliable scientific research efforts on stress and other related issues started to emerge around the middle of the 20th century (Luthan, 1989). The earliest scientists to conduct extensive research into the physiological, psychological (Luthan, 1989). The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) model development by Hans selys many years ago is still very relevant to present day research efforts on stress (narayanan et al, 1999).
Here in Nigeria, quite a number of empirical research studies and clinical experiments have been carried out on the incidence of stress at different levels and under different circumstances (Oloko 1977) Ovurie 1979; Obugbile 1982, Ebie 1983 and Akinnusi 1993. these studies have shown consistent high level of stress among Nigieran workers. Such stress in conjunction with other socio-political and economic factors has contributed to the declining performance and productivity of the Nigerian factors responsible for such stress were properly identified and evaluated. Attempting to address some of the basic issues relating to stress as it affects employees productivity in the service industry is my concern in this project.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Sely (1976) it is widely accepted that the development of stress reaction or symptoms is a functions of factors operating in the internal environment. The nature of the interaction between these variables will determine the prevalence, cause and consequences of stress relation.
There is stress associated with individual, group, organization and extra-organisational actors. On the individual factors, stress can be associated with personal characteristics and life career stages. On the group factors, these include lack of group cohesiveness, lack of social support, inter-personal and inter-group conflict. Thus the effectiveness of employees in any service industry is influenced by the nature of relations among groups. The organizational factor related to conflicting policies, ill-defined responsibilities and authorities, poor physical working condition.
While the extra-organisational factors are associated with societal and technological changes, family situations, poor residential conditions etc. stress may have be neticial as well as adverse effects in the long run. The organism in individuals grows in adaptive capacity through its encounter with stress and faced with blend safe environment. Thus, we can see in every phase of the development of life, from infancy through adolescence, from the struggle to learn to work to earn one’s living, we can attest to the fact that stress is involved in the development of all personal growth. Therefore, since stress has so much on the past of human life, we need to be able to adapt to it if we are to continue to function.
However, despite the draw back of stress, it is not altogether bad for individual employees or their overall organizational performance. Infact, it is generally recognized that at least low level of stress can enhance job performance. This low level of stress required is referred to as “eu-stress” (a Greek word meaning good) Selye (1976). There is therefore the need to understand the term “stress” through the knowledge of the subjects and the practical application of appropriate strategies as to how to either cope without manage stress. This forms the basis for this current study, as it will give the research the opportunity of sampling opinion of different personalities working with Shukura Hotel, Sokoto.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Stress as a concept has attracted a lot of attraction frommany diverse disciplines such as psychiatry, clinical and social psychology, sociology, organizational behaviours, cultural anthropology,medicine et cetera. This is not surprising because the causes and consequences of stress are multi-faceted and wide-ranging.
In the developing countries, the incidence of stress at homes, in the society and amongst employees of any service industry is also alarming owing to harsh economic realities, poor social relations, institutional delays and breakdowns, general pervasive feelings of precariousness of life. People encounter stress in their day to day activities, this study will focus on the effect of stress on employees’ productivity in Shukura Hotel, Sokoto with a view to assessing the factor that contributes to stress in various employees.
These problems as mentioned above poses a three to the productivity of employees in service, industry because the work of one employee’s work depends on the other since the execution of a task to achieve customers’ satisfaction follow a hierarchy in terms of execution. Basically, these problems necessitate the need for assessing the effect of stress on employees productivity using Shukura Hotel, Sokoto as a case study with a view to identifying the factors that contribute to stress in the employees, and proffer possible ways to solving some of these problems.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In whatsoever situation, however capacity to withstand stress is a function of the individual, the situation and the social context. This form the basis of this current study.
The general objective of this study is to provide an empirical investigation of stress in an organization and how it affects productivity amongst employees in a service productivity amongst employees in a service industry (especially Shukura Hotel, Sokoto). Specifically, this study aims at identifying the personality, groupings among employees which may predispose them to stress. however, the major objectives are stated as follows:
1. to identify the causes of stress and human reaction to it.
2. to analyse the difference between functional and dystunctional stress among the employees.
3. to determine how stress on the job influences the behaviour of employees.
4. to identify factors that contribute to most employees stress and how the factors affect their family life as well as place of work.
5. to identify ways of preventing harmful stress among the employees as well as to highlight specific strategies of coping with or managing stress.
6. to also try to identify the overall effects of stress on employees productivity and how it affects the organization.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS.
In view of the research problem this study intends to address, the following research hypothesis shall be proffered in order to provide direction in the course of data analysis, and to enable the researcher arrive at fundings and draw conclusions from them. The following are some basic hypothesis to be considered in the course of this research work.
1. Ho: that quantitiative and qualitiative overload do not contribute to stress.
Hi: that quantitative and qualitiative over load contribute to stress.
2. Ho: that level of job satisfaction and participation does not affect the intensity of stress among employees.
Hi : that level of job satisfaction and participation affects the intensity of stress among employees.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been observed that there is a shortage or inadequacy of literature relevant, specifically, to stress management in Nigeria business organizations. Therefore believe that this research report will be relevant to existing literature in such area.
Furthermore, it is also expected that the research report will be significant to the management and employees of Shukura Hotel, Sokoto and similar organization as a working material relevant to decisions on stress management and control. Arguments presented and analysis made will surely province useful aids to decisions-making on stress management in most service industries especially the hotels. Moreover, the above is the expectation that the research will be significant in sensitizing hotel executives on the importance of ensuring an efficient stress management strategy.
Conclusively, the significance of this research work in line with fulfilling an academic requirement, which is a pre-requisite for the award of a post graduate diploma (PGD) in management science cannot be overemphasized.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
This research work is mainly concerned with the effect of stress on employees productivity in the service industry, laying more emphasis on a hotel setting like Shukura Hotel, Sokoto.
In this case, the researcher only based the research work on the scanty data which were supplied to him by the management of Shukura Hotel, Sokoto. Due to fear of competing firms and relinquishing vital data which could be within reach of their competitors.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher was unable to lay hands on some recent publications on stress due to logistics and financial constraints. It has not been easy to always travel. These limitations were however minimized through the support of an insider.
Finally, efforts were made to reduce the effect of these limitations through quality and ardent supervision at various stages of this research work.
1.8 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CASE STUDY
Sokoto town emerged from the reign of caliphate Mohammed Bell oater the jihad of Shehu Othman Danfodiyo in the year 1809. early settlers were attracted to the city because of economic prospects and security the town could offer.
Mohammed Bello’s dynamic policies led sokoto to play a mjor role as an administrative cosmopolitian, commercial and religious learning centre. The movement of Shehu Othman Danfodiyo to Sokoto state in the year 1805 brought about the rapid growth of the town in population, commerce, religion and administration. The headquarters of the sokoto caliphate has today grown from being a provincial headquaters to a state headquarters of the North-western states, and now the headquarters of Sokoto state. There is now a federal University, University Teaching Hospital and an airport, among many modern facilities.
SHUKURA HOTEL, SOKOTO.
Shukura hotel, sokoto built by the sokoto state government is as a result of sudden upsurge of travelers to sokoto state and its environs during the political days of the second republic. Then, there was an excessive demand in hotel accommodation and the government of the day therefore considered it appropriate to build a modern hotel in the state capital to complement the existing servies in it already with the latest Japanese technology, in corporate the most modern facilities a five star hotel can provide anywhere in the world. The hotel has sixty (60) double rooms, and three (3) executive suites tastefully furnished and warmly decorated to give customers good comfort, the real home away from home”.
Situated on Gusau road, it is within the proximity of the states banking institutions, airline booking offices and shopping centres. The hotel has a wide-spaced reception lobby for various kinds of information, and gift shop packed with exotic and assorted gifts.
MANAGEMENT: Shukura hotel, sokoto was eventually handed over to Arewa Hotels development limited, the leading hotel operators in the country for management in the early part of 1986. trial run period of the hotel commenced on the 7th June, 1986.
ROOMS: All the sixty (60) rooms are amply-sized and luxuriously furnished. Each of the rooms has a twin-bed, a private bath, individually controlled air-conditioner, and upholstered items. There is video system that provides four alternative channels for guests comfort. This is in addition to the telephone services, radio in-house light music for customer listening pleasure. The hotel offers high class services from well trained management and service staff.
The restaurant serves guests both Nigerian and International cuisines with very good varieties of a la carte menu.
Breakfast 7;-00am – 10:00am
Lunch 12:30pm -3.:00pm
There is however, a twenty four (24) hours room service in operators
BAR: Shukura cossy bar is designed specially to satisfy a high class service. The bar is to ensure that residential and non-residtinal guests enjoy a variety of cocktails and other chilled assorted drinks. Non-resident guests can also make use of the bar only when they are registered as members, charged a token fee and would be expected to operate within the rules and regulations of the club.
CONFERENCES: There is a high-class banquet hall which caters for all sorts of social functions, from launching of new products, conference, seminars, receiptions cocktail parties, etc with a standing and sitting capacity of over two hundred (200) guests. It is very much an ideal place for all kinds of banqueting functions. Secretarial services can also be provided for conference delegates and resident guests. There is also a parking space of over a hunded (100) cars within the hotel premises.
PLACES OF INTEREST IN SOKOTOSTATE
There are several places of interest in sokoto state among which are tomb of Shehu Othman Danfodiyo, the Sultan’s palace, the leather tannery work, the sokoto cement factory etc.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. STRESS: Stress can be defined as the “rate of all wear and caused by life” (selye, 1982).
2. EMPLOYEE: This is an individual whose serives are headed or are headed or are essential for the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. He/she puts both mental and physical efforts in order to achieve the set goals and or objectives of an organization.
3. PRODUCTIVITY: This refers to the output –input ratio within a time period with due consideration for quality.
4. SERVICE: This is defined as any effort geared towards creating a certain level of satisfaction to customers. Service come in different forms. They could either be in an abstract form e.g. Smila, or phsycial through after sales service.
5. SERVICE INDUSTRY: This is a combination of firms that engage in the provision of committed services to its clients e.g. a hotel, which is a firm, is one of the firms found among the service industry.
EFFECT OF STRESS ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN THE SERVICE INDUSTRY