A STUDY ON CONTRIBUTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL STAKEHOLDERS TO EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE
1.1 Background to the study
Who has the right to establish or fund school? More fundamentally, who has the right to educate the child – is it the family, or the state, or some other organization, such as church or mosque? Are these rights mutually exclusive or can they be mutually supportive or mutually complementary?
Before attempting to answer the above questions there is the need to briefly say something on education and its importance in, and contribution to the economic and social transformation of any country, as well as the development of human resources. “Education” in its broadest term is a continuous process of learning stretching from the birth of an individual to his death. Thus, it begins from a child’s home and continues even after school to adulthood.
According to Raposo(2010),Education has been identified as a dominant factor in the economic and social transformation of any country. It is because of the importance which education possesses that it was international declared to be “the birth right of every child. “It was as a result of this that universal primary education (UPE) was seen as an effective way to give all children – regardless of sex or family background – an equal start in life. Education was to be the greatest disparities in conditions of living that existed between the rich and the poor and between those living in rural areas and in urban communities.
On the ground of human justice and equity, the objective of universal primary education (UPE) became a common goal to all countries. The transformation of elite education which trained only a tiny proportion of the school – age population into systems of mass education was the pre-independence promise of most developing countries. Ajayi, Ekundayo and Arogundade (2009).
Besides the objective to make education available on a much wider scale on grounds of justice and social equity, education was considered as an essential pre-condition to economic growth. Many developing countries believe that modernization, industrialization and wealth of the developed countries were the direct consequence of their education systems. It is because of this that developing countries have been witnessing education explosion since independence.
As a result of the inherent benefits of education derivable to both individual and government, various government in Nigeria give priority to it as indicated in their various policy statements, and since independence in 1960, various development plans have invariably accorded prominence to education in national planning. In other words, education has been taking lion share in the federal and states government budgetary allocation of funds. The demand for education continues to snowball yearly as a consequence of rapid growth rate of the population. However, despite the gigantic financial resources being committed to this sector, the demand is yet to equate supply. Consequently, there is need for stakeholders in Education to augment government efforts it exists in other sectors such as health, industry, banking e.t.c.
To answer our opening question, it is to be noted that the principal societies that have served mankind more than any other are the family, the church or mosque, and the state?. Of these societies, the state is unique because of its all – inclusiveness. It is the function the state among other things to make provision, for development of the citizens through adequate qualitative education as well as provision of adequate avenues for moral and religious development. It follows without saying that the state has the right to establish, maintain, administer, and regulate public school of various forms and grades, ranging from nursery schools to universities and covering divergent kinds of programmes of studies, ranging from simple curricular offerings to profound specializations, in complex elements of human endeavour. Nakpodia(2011)
Although the state has the right to educate the citizen, it is however not exclusive and absolute right that must not be shared by other units of the societies. “There must be sufficient openness in the society to allow for alternatives”. As Okafor (1984) puts it “in pursuance of genuine human liberties and human rights, there is crying need for private education to be given a responsible place in the society. In other words, individuals, organization, or agency besides the state should also be allow to establish, maintain, and also administer schools of various grades such as the state. This in all fairness is a right and not a privilege.
Notwithstanding, the state has the right and responsibility to regulate private schools by establishing minimum standards, which schools must attain in secular subject matter areas.
The dwindling resources of the government have incapacitated it from satisfying the education needs and demands of all citizens. Hence, the need for private investors involvement in education enterprise. It is however not new thing to see other agencies beside government participating in educating the people. If we remember the private sector made up of religious organization, voluntary agencies, cultural union, educational and communities entrepreneur played dominant roles in the provision of education to Nigeria before the takeover of schools by the Military government in the 70s.
For about decades or more now, government has again give private bodies a privilege to own and run educational institutions. It is heartening to note that education sector has been attracting more and more stakeholders since then. They have been contributing immensely to see that demand for education is met at least to an appreciable level of percentage. Not only helping to bridge the gap between demand and supply, the stakeholders has been providing qualitative and functional education.
It becomes imperative therefore to take a critical look at the activities of the stakeholders. Schools with a view to knowing how they have been performing and also to analyze their contribution to educational development in Nigeria particularly in Ado-Odo Ota, Area in Ogun State.
1.2 Statement of the problem
However important education is in a nation’s development effort, a government cannot close its eyes to other equally important sectors of the economy. Hence, education has to compete with other sectors in the allocation of resources. The dwindling situation of the government revenue as a result of inflation and guilt in oil industry has made government schools (especially the states schools) to be in financial distress thereby not being able to offer qualitative education. Teachers salaries are not being paid as at when due, schools are starved of necessary instructional materials, building and equipment are in state of disrepair hence not conducive for learning to take place, and a host of other problems. The need for government to share its revenue, among competing ends makes it improbable to the provision of adequate supply of educational services to meet ever growing demands. The study sets to find out the contributions of non-governmental stakeholders to educational development in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State.
1.3 Research Questions
1a. Can government solely and adequately meet the demand, for education.
b. Should other stakeholders contribute?.
2. What is the justification for non-governmental stakeholders involvement in education development?
3. What has been the stakeholders contributions to educational development in Abeokuta North local government area in the past ten years?
4. What period did the stakeholders provide facilities in the past ten years?
5. How can schools encourage other stakeholders to contribute to educational development?
1.4 De Limitation of the study
The study will be limited to twelve (12) selected secondary school in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State. The institutions to be covered would be government secondary schools.
1.5 Limitation for the study
Demand for education is increasing every now and then while supply cannot be said to be moving up at the same rapid pace. In view of the above, it becomes necessary to carry out a study with a view to finding out how to bring about an equilibrium point in our educational system. In other words, there is need to know how demand can be equated with supply. The major limitations of the study are fund and time. The research could not visit more than twelve schools because of limited resources and also time that is available for the study.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study will be significant in the sense that it will enable us to know how demand for educational service is being met through the contributions of stakeholders. The study will expose us to what is, and what should be the contribution of stakeholders. The study will also suggest ways by which government can regulate the activities of the stakeholders in education to make them conform strictly to government rules and regulations guiding the establishment of running of educational institutions.
1.7 Operational definition of terms
Stakeholders: These include individuals, educational bodies, and religious bodies (other than government) who have legitimate interest in educational ventures such as establishing and running of schools.
Educational Development: It means developmental change of one or more characteristics of educational systems variables in a positive director in terms of some valued criterion.A STUDY ON CONTRIBUTIONS OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL STAKEHOLDERS TO EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT