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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR NURSERY/PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:82
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Education Project Topics & Materials)
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR NURSERY/PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
ABSTRACT

Early years in life are the most important to the formation of intelligence, personality and social behaviour of a child. The Nursery or Early Childhood Education (ECE) comprises essential
programmes and activities which are critical to holistic development, academic success and future achievements of children. ECE is recognized by the federal government of Nigeria as a foundational and essential programme that Nigerian children must experience. Primary education is a foundational level of education that needs to be well funded, controlled and managed. Adequate provisions of education to the citizens contribute greatly to the socioeconomic development of the country. Therefore good administration of primary level of education is required to foster national growth and development. That is why modern societies show serious concern for the education of their young ones by providing needed support to prepare them to succeed later in school (Ejieh, 2006). It is common practice in most societies to make provision for early childhood education programmes of various sorts for children below the official school-going age (usually 6years) mainly to prepare them for education in primary schools (Obidike, 2012). The Federal Government of Nigeria recognizes the importance of early childhood education in Nigeria and as a result it was given prominence in the National Policy of Education ( FRN, 2004) as one of the programmes in the Nigerian educational system. This is why the government has given highly rated attention to it through various interventions that include formulation of policy documents and network of relationships among different sectors. Unfortunately, various challenges are facing the implementation of ECE in Nigeria. This study examines the challenges that are militating against this important early education in pre-primary schools and Primary schools. Some practical ways to overcome the challenges are provided.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study  -        -        -        
1.2 Statement of the Problem  -        -        -        -        
1.3 Research Question   -        -        -        -        -        
1.4 Objective of the Study       -        -        -        
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis   -        -        -        -        
1.6 Significance of the Study   -        -        -        -        
1.7 Scope  and Limitation of the Study      -        -        -        
1.8 Definition of Terms -        -        -        -        -        -        
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Introduction   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        
2.2 Conceptual Framework of Study         -        -        -        
2.3 Functionality of Primary Education     -        -        -        
2.4 Financing of Primary Education -        -        -        -        
2.5 Structural Changes of Primary Education                -        -        
2.6 Benefits of Investment in Early Childhood (Nursery) Education         
2.7 Factors responsible for Poor Primary Education in Nigeria       -        
2.8 Factors responsible for Poor Nursery Education in Nigeria       -        
2.9 National Policy and Basic Curriculum for Nursery Education   -       
2.10 National Policy on Primary Education         -        -        -        -        
2.11 The Primary School Curriculum Modules    -        -        -        
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction   -        -        -                  -        -        
3.2 Research Design      -        -        -        -        -        
3.3 Population and Sampling Technique    -        -        -        
3.3 Method of Data Collection          -        -        -        
3.4 Method of Data Analysis  -        -        -        -        
CHAPTER FOUR
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Introduction   -        -        -        -        -        
4.2 Data Analysis and Presentation           -        -        -        
4.3 Discussion of Findings      -        -        -        -        -        
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusions    
5.1 Summary       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        
5.2 Conclusion     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        
5.3 Recommendations   -        -        -        -        -        
Bibliography    -        -        -        -        -        -        
Appendix                   -        -        -        -        -        -        
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the study
In Nigeria, organized education of the child below primary school age did not receive official recognition until very recently, receive the attention it deserved. The concept of infant schools was introduced in Nigeria by the missionaries in the early 20th century when such schools were set up in the Western and Eastern regions of Nigeria.  Early Childhood education in the form of nursery school or pre primary education as we know it today in Nigeria is largely a post colonial development. The semblance of it during the colonial era were the Kindergarten and infant classes, which consisted of groups of children considered not yet ready for primary education. As grouping for instruction in schools was not age based during the period, some children aged six or even more could be found in some of the infant classes (Tor- Anytin, 2008). With the phasing out of infant classes, some parents began to feel the need for nursery schools.
The importance of education to human beings cannot be overemphasized. Globally, education is considered as human right that should be accorded to all human beings, in facts it was the reason why a lot of international human right bodies consider education as a fundamental human right.
Early years in life are widely accepted as the most important period during which children experience cognitive, language, perceptual, socio-emotional and development which they will need for future achievements and social functioning. This informs the reason why the periods of early years need to be handled with all special and detailed attention. Estes (2004) has described the early years as a remarkable period of growth and development in the lives of children. In their submission, Oduolowu and Olowe (2011) noted that the early years of children are years of extreme Vulnerability and tremendous potentials during which adequate protection care and stimulation are essential to procide the foundation for well being and development. In providing this foundation during the early years, Early Childhood Education (ECE) becomes a key actor.
As part of the intervention of the government in ECE, there was enactment of UBE Act (2004) which has an expanded scope that  includes programmes and initiatives for early childhood education and development (UNESCO-IBE, 2006) . The UBE programme made provision for every public primary school to have a pre-primary school linkage to cater for children, and this resulted in increased government ownership and participation in ECE provisions (UNESCO-IBE,2006). Osanyin (2012) noted that there was the development of National Minimum Standard for Early Child Care Centers in Nigeria while in the same vein, Oguntuashe (2010) reported the development of curriculum for in service teacher training and IECD caregiver training Manuel. Another notable intervention is the development of a policy referred to as National Policy for Integrated Early Childhood Development that integrates interventions from various sctors to promote an integrated holistic approach to the development of the child (FGN, 2007). One other intervention that worth mentioning is the development of a unified early childhood education curriculum which was all encompassing and divided into two sections to cater for age 0-3 and 3-5 years respectively. All over the world, primary education as been regarded as the most patronized by people. This perhaps may be due to the fact that it is the foundation of the whole educational pursuit, which is expected to provide literary and enlightenment to the citizens ( George, Olayiwola, Adewole and Osabuohien, 2013). The importance of primary education can therefore be seen in the sense that all beneficiaries of the other levels of education by necessity have to pass through this level (Adebayo, 20009). What this means is that primary education, the education given in an institution aged 6-11 years constitute the bedrock upon which the entire education system is built.
According to National Policy on Education (FRN) (2004), Primary Education is the “Education given in institutions for children aged 6-11 years plus” (p.14). This definition is the consonance with the World Bank  (2006) definition which stated that, “ Primary Education sometimes referred to as elementary education programmes that are normally designed on a unit or project basis to give pupils a sound basic education in reading writing and mathematics along with an elementary understanding of other sources such as history, geography, natural science, social science, art and music” (p.22-48) which serve to develop pupils’ ability to sustain and use information about the immediate environment and the nation.
The goals of primary education as stated in the National Policy on Education section 4(16) of FRN (2004) is to:
i.    Inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy skills, and the ability to communicate effectively;
ii.    Lay a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking;
iii.    Give citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society;
iv.    Mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in the child;
v.    Develop in the child the ability to adapt to his/her changing environment
vi.    Give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limits of his/her capacity;
vii.    Provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and craft of the locality.
For any government to achieve goals in Nigeria, requires putting the right peg in the right hole. By this, it becomes imperative for government to put in place all the factors that will facilitate the achievement of these objectives and also ensure their maintains. According to Akale in National Teachers Institute (NTI) (2002) stated that teachers are the most importance resource in education programme. To ensure the best possible quality in the teaching workforce, the policies implemented g=by the government most take into account the interplay of certain critical variables that influence teachers’ career such as pre-service training, recruitment polities, remuneration and continuing education programme. Teachers should be given both local and international scholarship to upgrade and update their knowledge and skills in order to influence change in education. They should be encourage to further the spirit of enquiry and creativity and assisted to fit into the social life of the community and society at large. This will go a long way in realizing the above stated objectives.
On the basis of conventional thought, funding is the most significant challenge with developing North-central education system. Recent development in the educational sectors of the state like Benue, Kogi and Kwara have shown that increased funding is the panacea to North-central educational system. Budgetary allocation to education sector in Benue and Kogi state since 2005-2013 has been grossly inadequate.
There is no doubt that primary education is a panacea for solving problems such as ignorance, illiteracy, religious violence, Insecurity and political servitude. An educated Nigerian is capable of making a more stable, peaceful and prosperous country possible. Plausibly, the Nigerian government has for long known the importance of primary education to national development. The realization of this, among  other facts, motivated different governance at different points in a little more than half a century to make primary education free and declare it universal and compulsory. However the strength of primary education lies essentially on what is usually termed basic education with the sole objectives of equipping young people with the tools needed to investigate and inquire, to think, conclude and understand events around them. Therefore, understanding some basic issue in primary education delivery in Nigeria is essential and of great importance to stakeholders.
This study extensively considers factors responsible for poor nursery and primary education delivery in Nigeria and Nasarawa state in particular. It reflects on its functional Importance, structural change, enrolment, funding, infrasture, teaching personal and curriculum issues. In sum, the aim of he paper is to expand the depth of our understanding of the impact of these on primary education delivery in Nigeria.
1.2    Statement of the Problem
According to Egwu (2009), some challenges facing primary education in Nigeria include the huge disparity between expected school enrolment and the actual enrolment figure. This leads to difficulties in accurately planning and allocating human, material and financial resources adequately to the various primary schools in the country.
Education in Nigeria has suffered great setback, double jeopardy and total disconnection due to national strike, political instability, insecurity and all manner of mal-function of institution and the decay of educational standard.
Poor management of information in terms of gathering accurate data, recording and retrieved of data leads to conflicting statistic about the number of enrolled pupils and new applicants in the system. This means that these vital information are not readily available when needed, thereby creating a vacuum for policy makers, stakeholders and researchers to carry out their functions efficiently.
The availability of adequate school building classroom, chairs and other facilities are necessary are also factors affecting the educational system. However the increase in primary school enrolment does not have corresponding increase in infrastructural development in the primary schools. A common scene at the primary schools in Lafia environment is that of half completed or dilapidated and overcrowded classrooms lacking basic equipment and facilities with unsightly and unhygienic toilet.
Most of the schools do not follow the stipulated curriculum processions that are designed for school teaching and learning. At primary level ten subjects are taken. Two of these ten subjects, agriculture and home economics are to be deferred to later years of primary schools.
Teachers still operate under very pathetic conditions such as overcrowded classrooms, wide variations in age and with little or no materials for teaching. Most worry of course is the fact that some of these teachers are still ill equipped to cope with such situations. Teachers need to empowered with skills which will enable them identify their own problems (administrative or pedagogical) seek solutions to these problems.
Funding is another major challenges facing nursery and primary schools in Lafia. Without availability of funds and proper management to carry out any work at the primary level, any plans of transformation are bound to fail. Funding issues in primary education plays a crucial role in determining the level of success, development and change, It also helps to direct attention towards the achievement of set goals at all levels of education. Adequate funding entails a timely supply of funds, qualified teachers, administrators and infrastructural facilities to ensure success in any organization.
It is on these premises and more to be explored in the literature review that has prompted the researcher to carry out this study with the aim of identifying the causes of these problems and proffering useful recommendations.
Similarly, Omotayo, Iheberence and Maduewesi  (2008) also indicated that poor implementation strategy management and lack of assurance as responsible factors that contributes to the failure of the UBE to attain its goals since its inception more than 10 years ago. Other predicaments include financial problems in terms of misappropriation and embezzlement of funds and financial crime of all sorts being perpetuated by those in authority.
1.3    Research Questions
The research seeks to find answers to the following research questions:
i.    Does lack of adequate funding affect the availability of infrastructural facilities in the school?
ii.    What is the relationship between the school teaching curriculum and the standard of education?
iii.    What is the relationship between the availability of teaching materials and teachers output?
iv.    Does over enrollment of pupils affect the quality or standard of education per child?
1.4    Objective of the study
Generally, this study seeks to explore the relationship between primary education standard and the educational development in Nasarawa state. The specific objectives for this study are;
1.    To fid out whether lack of funding affects the availability of infrastructural facilities.
2.    To find out the extent to which non adherence to teaching curriculum affect the standard of education in Nasarawa state.
3.    To examine if there is a relationship between the availability of teaching material and teachers output.
4.    To examine the effects of over enrolment of pupils per classroom on each child.
1.5    Research Hypothesis
To proffer useful answers to he research questions and realize the study objectives, the following hypothesis stated in their null forms will be tested;
Hypothesis 1
Ho: Inadequate funding of primary schools does not affect the availability of infrastructural facilities in the school.
Hypothesis 2
Ho: There is no relationship between the school teaching curriculum and the standard of education.
Hypothesis 3
Ho:  There is no significant relationship between the availability of teaching materials and teachers output.
Hypothesis 4
Ho: Over enrolment of pupils in a class does not affect the quality or standard of education per child?
1.6    Significant of the study
It is expected that when this study is completed, the result of findings and the dearth of literature review will be an eye opener to the ministry of education on the prevalent standard of education in Nasarawa state. This can also be a useful medium in addressing the present condition of the primary schools not in Lafia but in the whole of Nasarawa state and other states in the federation.
This study will be useful to the state government of Nasarawa state in making decisions as to the allocation of funds to foster educational development within the state.
The outcome of this study will be beneficial to policy makers, government agencies, labor unions, regulatory institutions, students, academic and teachers.
This study will also be useful to the researcher in the pursuant of a post graduate diploma in public administration.
1.7    Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study seeks to investigate the factors responsible for poor nursery and primary education in Nigeria and its effect on the educational development in Nasarawa state. In this research study, emphasis is placed on some selected nursery and primary schools in Lafia local government area, among which includes: Local Government Education Authotity (L.G.E.A) Agyaragu-Tofa, Isamic primary school Lafia. Local Government Education Authority (L.G.E.A)  Dunama-Lafia, local government education authority  (L.G.E.A) Arikya Roman Catholic Missionaries primary school (R.C.M) Fedama, local government education authority (L.G.E.A) Wakama, St-Tawe primary school Lafia, local government education authority (L.G.E.A) Bukan-Kwato.
1.8    Definition of Operational Terms
Education:  The process of training an individual to become an acceptable member of a society. It is also means by which people develop skills, acquire knowledge and improve character through a formal training.
Standard: Something used as a test or measurement for quality or for requirement of degree of excellence.
Primary education: Otherwise known as primary or infant education. It does the first introductory school level that young children receive, usually starting from six (6) years and continuing up to Ten(10) Twelve (12) years.
Nursery education: This is the early childhood care and education offered to children who have not yet reached the statuary age of beginning primary school which comprises essential programmes and activities which are critical to holistic development, academic success and future achievement of children.
Curriculum: Curriculum is the summation of systematically planned process of teaching and learning based on the aims and objectives of the educational policy of any country. It is made up of academic or subject based curriculum and non academic or extra curriculum programmies. The primary schools curriculum module is an academic curriculum based on all subjects designed for the primary school level.

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR NURSERY/PRIMARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

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Details

Type Project
Department Education
Project ID EDU1588
Price ₦3,500 ($10)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 82 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Education
    Project ID EDU1588
    Price ₦3,500 ($10)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 82 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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