A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TO WORK IN NIGERIA
A research was carried out in order to determine employee orientation and organizational commitment to work in Nigeria (A case study of Enugu State Housing Corporation, Enugu). Questionnaire were administered to the two hundred and eight six workers of Enugu State Housing Corporation, Enugu. Some of the workers were also interview. The results indicate that having a good deal of autonomy makes Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu workers to become oriented to work. It was also discovered that the salary is meager and inadequate. It was also discovered that the organizational status of worker in Enugu State Housing Corporation is very low. The working environment was also discovered to be very poor and adequate facilities were not there. The study suggest that the management of Enugu State Housing Corporation should maintain a good deal of autonomy. The government should also increase the workers salary. The workers should also be more oriented to be more efficient. Government should also improve the organizational status of worker of Enugu State Housing Corporation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.1 Review of Related literature
2.2 Classification of Orientation to Work
2.3 Roles of Managers towards Organizational
2.4 Correlates of Organizational Commitment
2.5 Theoretical Perspective
2.6 Workers Orientation in Enugu State
3.0 Research design and methodology
3.1 Source of Data
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Determination of Sample Size
3.4 Sample Techniques
3.5 Selection and Construction of Research
3.6 Administration of Research Instrument
3.7 Instrument of Return Rate
4.0 Presentation and Analysis Of data
4.1 Presentation of Data Analysis
5.0 Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1 Summary of Findings
This study focuses on employee orientation and as it affects organizational commitment to work. The point is that people have different aspirations, expectations and views about work, which invariably affect the degree of their commitment to the organization in which they work. This work is therefore part of the scholar as to what particular work orientation best engenders favourable work attitudes and commitment. Two distinct group are involved in this debate – they are the instrumentalist represented by Taylor (1990) and Cold Horpe et al (1997) argued extrinsic orientation and self actualization school which emphasize intrinsic aspect of work. Writers in this group includes: Hertzberg (1989:113), Brown (1989:121) Hall and Scnider.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Work is one phenomenon, which is inevitable in the universe and invariable affects the entire aspect of human life. There is percussive evidence that work is a major formative experience which can either promote or limit a man’s growth in ways which affect the whole man and which therefore shape his life outside man the as well as within it (for 1991). Some modern industrial doctrine of work advocates the philosophy which ascribes to work on extrinsic meaning. It expects work to fill predominantly extrinsic satisfaction to the workers. Work is mainly seen in terms of its instrumental characters as a means to some end, it becomes a means of trying to meet the ever rising material standard of life and the pursuit to reinsure activities outside work environment avenue consumption. Also, other philosophies of work however, ascribed to work as an intrinsic meaning.
The research work centers on the organizational orientation and commitment to work. According to Royer Bermeth (1981) orientation is the way by which people are meant to understand all that is obtainable in their work and the environment. It is equally how people view their work situation in terms of what one desires to achieve.
Also Nwachukwu (1998) sees orientation to work as planning of a good program to introduce the new employee to the company as a whole, to his department, his job and his peers. It also involves the formal tour of the company buildings, giving the employee information about the company’s activities, its structure, his job and its relationship to other jobs in the company.
However, in an organizational commitment orientation to work, the management makes several things known to the worker as regards to the performance of his job and in line with the organizations laid down rule and regulations. This is designed to provide a new employee with the information needed to function comfortably and effectively in the organization. By Ile .M. (2000).
Organization orientation conveys three things:
i. General information about the daily work routine.
ii. A review of the organization history, purpose, operations and products or services as well as how the employee job contributes to the organizational needs.
iii. A detailed presentation, perhaps in a brochure of the organizations works policies, rules and employee benefits.
In the area of commitment to work, many employees (workers) feel anxious on entering an organization. They worry on how well they will perform in the job, they feel inadequate compared to more experienced employees and they are concerned on how well things will get along with their co-workers. Orientation programmes reduces the anxiety of new employees by giving them information on the job environments and on supervisors by introducing them to co-workers, and by encouraging them to ask questions. If the executions of the employees are compatible with that of the organization, there will be dissatisfaction and work commitment of the employees would be drastically reduced.
Steers and Porter (1979:333) stated that organizational orientation is the guided adjustment of employee to the organization and his work environment. Organizational orientation helps the works in the following ways:
i. To overcome axial shock.
ii. To satisfy the employees need for acceptance and motivates the employee to work as a member of a group.
iii. It gives the employee the feeling of being wanted by the organization irrespective of how insufficient his contributions to it may be.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Many employees due to inadequate orientation on the part of the organization in most cases see their jobs as government work and therefore are nobody’s work, due to above there has been a poor working attitude, absenteeism, ineptitude, redundancy and low productivity. The following problems have been identified as the major cause of their poor attitude to work and also:
i. Lack of proper orientation of workers by the management or immediate supervisor.
ii. The lukewarm attitude of Nigeria workers in Enugu State Housing Corporation in Enugu as it concerns ethics and code of conduct.
iii. Lack of training and inexperience among workers as a hindrance to their commitment in the organization.
iv. Poor leadership qualities of the Director General so the researcher wants to find out why and proffer a suggestion.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study has set out a number of objectives which it strives to achieve; these objectives are born out of the need for modern manager to always strive towards achieving a synchronization of the organizational goals.
i. To identify if workers actually given orientation as a new in takes to enhance their commitment in the organization.
ii. To identify whether important variable that might be positively or negatively related to employee commitment in the organization.
iii. To ascertain a particular work orientation that is most suitable to employees of Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Does the management of Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu have a work orientation package for workers?
ii. What makes employee of Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu to become oriented to work.
iii. What makes the employees of Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu to engage in organizational commitment?
iv. Do you think that organizational goals and those of its employees create a high commitment workforce?
v. Has organizational commitment create an impact among the workers of Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work based on its theoretical and practical nature would benefit managers, research experts and entire organization in the following ways.
i. It would help the managers in restrictive work contents and processes in order to achieve the set organizational goals.
ii. It would enable the manager to arranging organizational conditions and operation so that the employee can achieve their own goals.
iii. It is an avenue for the manager to learn the impact of motivation and orientation to employees organizational performance.
iv. To broaden the horizon of employee as regards to their commitment in the organization.
v. It would enable the managers to utlize the full potential of its workforce.
vi. Orientation can save the company a great deal of money by reducing the turnover rate of new employee and improving attitude to work with consequent increase in productivity.
vii. Orientation help to fulfill an employee need for security, belonging, esteem and acceptance.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is primary concerned with the worker orientation to work and organizational commitment. This study/project work covers Enugu State Housing Corporation Enugu.
This is as a result of some constraints being mounted by the researchers among which are time, attitude of respondents, distance and finance.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Orientation To Work: it is said to be an expression or reflection of how individual view his work situation in term of what he or she desires to achieve or not. It is concerned with the values, purposes, expectations and sentiments the workers bring to the work situation.
Antecedent Variables: This refers to those factors, which are capable of influencing employees organizational commitment. We have the member based model which holds that commitment originates in the actions and personal attributes of the organizational member and the organizational based model which is based on the premise that commitment reflects a member’s reciprocation for the organization’s having provided resources that satisfy important needs.A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE ORIENTATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT TO WORK IN NIGERIA