ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the Study 5
Significance of the Study 6
Scope of the Study 8
Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
What are Instructional Materials? 11
Contribution of Instructional Materials to the Teaching of
English language in secondary schools 14
Guide to Effective use of Instructional Materials 15
Instructional Materials to be used in the Teaching and
Learning of the English Language 20
The significance of Instructional Materials to the Teaching
and Learning of the English Language 31
Evaluation of the Role of Instructional Materials in the
Teaching and Learning of the English language 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 40
Research Population 40
Sample and Sampling Techniques 41
Research Instrument 41
Validity of the Instrument 42
Reliability of the instrument 42
Method of Data Collection 43
Method of Data Analysis 43
Data Analysis and Interpretation 44
Discussion of Result and Implication for Practice 58
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 61
Suggestions for Further Studies 66
Appendix I (Questionnaire)
Appendix II (Some pictures of Instructional Materials)
Background to the Study
Man learns through his senses. Some learn better by one or the other of the senses. To some, seeing is believing and to others, the senses of hearing, touch, smell and taste dominate in the acquisition of knowledge. For the intended learning to take place, the teacher must communicate effectively to the learner. The best way of helping pupils to learn is to bring them face to face with the world which education intends to introduce to them.
This is done by using real things in real life situations. Where real life situations are not possible, the alternative is for the teacher to use representations of real life situations. These are materials, devices and techniques that help the teacher to make realistic approach to his job. Whether real or substitute, these representations have a common goal. They help the teacher to convey the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learner so that the learner receives, understands, retains and applies the experiences gained to reach overall educational goal (Onwuka, 1981).
In Nigeria and other countries of the world, qualified and trained teachers have always been exposed to instructional technology, which emphasizes the importance of the use of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process. More often than not, these certified professionals are found guilty of ignoring, probably as a result of inadequacy of use or an erroneous belief that their use is not as significant as it is stressed, they avoid utilization of instructional materials in their teaching/learning process with their students. This situation is further compounded by the fact that every year, more sophisticated instructional materials are being introduced for classroom teaching or learning. As a matter of fact, some of these instructional materials are very complex to use or manipulate e.g. computer.
Instructional materials play vital roles in the teaching of English Language in secondary schools. Bassey (1984) conclusively elucidated the fact that instructional materials play a central role in the process of lesson planning. When teachers plan, usually their first concern is with the instructional materials and resources they have available and accessible. But according to him, teachers do not have adequate knowledge about the selection of these instructional materials. Kalaiye (1985) cited that learners need as much English language instruments for chalkboard demonstration. He concluded that the present state of affairs where English language is mainly a chalkboard and chalk affair does not make for proper understanding of the subject.
Studies have associated low utilization of materials with lack of adequate knowledge of instructional materials in addition to other factors. The ability of a teacher to select these materials, depends on a great extent on the training and ingenuity of the teacher concerned (Udo, 1988).
Statement of the Problem
It has been observed that the teaching and learning of English in our schools (especially in our senior secondary schools) is done without the use of instructional materials. Today, teachers are found giving abstract explanation on what necessarily should have been made easier with the employment of instructional materials.
Students, on their part, do not bother to use their textbooks during classroom instruction. Many of them still do not use them after school as an additional learning resource.
The question then is, do we have most of these materials in our secondary schools for actual classroom work? It is not clear how teachers of English select and use these materials. If such materials are available in their schools; for example, over head projector, slides and film strips, the micro-projector, tape recorder and radio. Thus, the problem of this study was an investigation into the role of instructional materials in the teaching of English language.
Purpose of the Study
This research work was set to:
Discuss the role of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of English;
Identify which instructional material can be best used by teachers and students in the teaching and learning of English;
Provide solutions to some of the problems accompanying the non-use of instructional media by teachers and students.
Significance of the Study
Instructional materials stimulates and sustains interest in the learner provide adequate interactions between the teacher and the learner and encourage the learner to acquire more experience and skill in the lesson.
Findings of this research work will help teachers in seeing the need to use instructional materials in complementation to their teaching methodology. They will also come to see the appropriate instructional media that are essential to the effective teaching and learning of the English language.
The government will find this work very useful when it comes to the procurement of requisite instructional media for English lessons. The government will also cultivate the culture of strict emphasis on regular and effective use of instructional materials in our schools having perused the significance of instructional materials in this work.
Learners of the English language will be compelled intrinsically to utilize their textbooks and other teaching resources of theirs within and outside school.
Moreso, other researchers will find the work useful in terms of recommendation purposes.
The use of instructional materials makes the teaching and learning of English effective.
The use of instructional media/materials makes the teaching and learning of English concrete.
The use of instructional materials serves as a force of motivation in the teaching/learning process of English language.
Scope of the Study
This work is restricted to discussing the influence of instructional media/materials on the teaching and learning of English language in some selected senior secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area and is delimited to SSI – III students and their teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in Edo state.
Operational Definition of Terms
Instructional Materials: These refer to a collection of print and non-print materials and equipment selected, arranged and located to serve the needs of the students and teachers and to further the purpose of the school.