THE IMPACT OF RADIO BROADCAST IN IMPROVING THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN NIGERIA
(A CASE STUDY OF ESBS/IMT POLY AIR PROGRAMME)
Development is the process of moving the world or mobilizing communities as a whole to engage in the task of self-improvement with the available resources. In same vain, Education is necessary not only to help in improving all aspects of a person but also all aspects of a nation’[s development. Following this, the Poly-Air Programme of ESBS/IMT Enugu, become a vital instrument to help the less privileged and those who are unable to go to regular tertiary Institutions, to improve on their knowledge acquisitions and general enlightenment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to find out the role the radio programme, ESBS/IMT Poly-Air has played in improving the educational system in Nigeria. This work is divided into five chapters for a critical examination. The introduction gives an insight to the topic, the problems which is intended to discover, objections and importance of the research work. Chapter two deals elaborately on journals, textbooks and other sources eg. Interviews that explains the literature source or materials consulted for the project. Chapter three, explains the methods, sample and design use for the research and collection of data distributed, and analyzing it for results. Chapter four is based on Analysis, presentation of data collected and also Testing of Hypothesis. Recommendations and Summary of findings is on chapter five which is the last chapter. Recommendations are made base on the findings of collected data: that , Poly-Air Programme should be improved for better education of the masses and also Government should increase the subventions given to the media (Radio) for affection dissemination of the programme.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Research problem
1.3 Objectives of study
1.4 Significance of study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of Terms
REVIEW PF LITERATURE
2.1 Source of Literature
2.2 The Review
2.3 Radio Broadcasting in Nigeria
2.4 History of Poly-Air Programme
2.5 Objectives of Poly-Air Programme
2.6 Management of Poly-Air Programme
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
3.5 Data Analysis
3.6 Validation of Instruments
3.7 Reliability of Instrument
3.8 Expected Result
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Data Analysis
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is an important agent for development of the individual, community, the social and the nation as a whole. According to behaviorist, the child is born without a: self”, he is as a clean state on which the care givers write what they wish. Through education, individuals perceived and imbibe fundamental values and also develop new ones. Education also as part of socialization helps to develop an individual, which in turn leads to the improvement of the society. Again, certain prescribed goals are realized in areas of economic growth, healthcare, political and social awareness, political stability, self reliance, national identity, cultural correlation amongst other things.
The need for all and sundry to be enlightened and will educated cannot be over emphasized and this, brought about the Introduction of using the media to get people educated. The electronic media, which serve as a means include the radio, the television, films and cinemas but the radio has continued to wax stronger as a medium of the people. We regard it as a medium of the people. We regard it as a medium of the people because radio has become a common sight in both urban and rural communities. It appeals to both literate and illiterate audiences as its programmes can be broadcast in their local dialects. According to Ansah (1991: 34) agrees that “of all the mass media generally available to Nigerians, the radio is the most widespread and accessible in other words, it breaks the barriers of distance as its reach is widely and highly penetrating.
Again, because of this qualities, the radio medium is seen as the effection means to get all sundry educated. Therefore, the role of the radio in educating the masses are found in some of its educational programmes like ESBS/IMT Poly-Air Programme, Win a million, school debates and host of others Education therefore is not only the development of individuals mental powers, knowledge and ability but also the systematic training and instruction given out especially to the young ones in colleges and Institutions through the media. Again, the media serves the purpose of enlightening the public both formally and informally.
The introduction of ESBS/IMT Poly-Air, a radio programme could be linked with the introduction of educational broadcasting in Nigeria. It started with the commissioning of wired broadcasting services in Lagos, during the colonial administration. This services involves the system of using the radio stations to relay programmes to subscribers, using enables connected to load speakers installed in their homes. In the same vain, the media gets to the audience, relaying different programmes.
Further, Enugu being the regional capital of the former Eastern Nigeria, the heart-beat of Igbo-land and presently, a state capital which occupies a strategic position in the political and social organization of Nigeria requires its citizens to be well enlightened, self reliant, independent and academically stable. Based on this, the need to use the media as an agent or instrument of formal learning become necessary.
Over the years, a lot of researches had been carried out on the issue of ESBS Poly-Air programme in improving the educational standard in Enugu. Also to find out the relationship between the Poly-air programmes, the Institution offering it (IMT) and also the radio medium that airs it.
Today, it is well accepted that the radio medium educational programmes produces good effects on the audience in the areas of comprehension, speaking abilities, perception, retention capabilities. There are also some problems, for instance some lecturers do not go in line with the media style of presentation. Secondly, there is one side communication and there is no feedback from the audience. Again there may also be distractions at home and short of power supply from NEPA. Not withstanding these problems, ESBS/IMT Poly-air has its objectives as:
1. To help non-regular students and works improve their academic pursuit through radio medium.
2. Since the radio has the ability to permeable the interiors of the state, the ruralites also listens to the lecturers.
3. To contribute to the uplifting system of education in Nigeria by importing knowledge to all that are interested.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The study among other things finds out the effectiveness of Poly-air programmes on the students. Also, it tries to find out if the timing of the programme is suitable for students and hold their interest.
The study also finds out the importance and the acceptability of the programme by the public and finally, if this radio programme is favouring education the masses as compared to the regular students programmes.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The importance of education can never be over-emphasized. It is the taproot of civilization and rural development.
Development is achieved, when there is an appreciable level in basic human needs, including high literacy level.
Bearing all these in mind, the objective of the study includes:-
1. To find out if the public truly appreciate the radio programme on its efforts of educating the masses.
2. To create awareness on the needs for those that are not opportune to attend regular programme in tertiary Institution, to enroll in the programme.
3. To ascertain the extent to which the programme has improved human life especially amongst the youths in the areas of comprehension and speaking abilities, behaviour and character.
4. To encourage and boost the morale of the public about the programme.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is guide necessary bearing in mind that the world is ever changing and developing. In western world, the use of computers to educate the population and give them wider knowledge of the world is very much accessible. This makes them to be scientifically, technologically, educationally and socially developed. Nigeria as we know, cannot be compared to the western world and this bring about the need for the public to be educated; those who were not opportuned, to enroll into various Institutions of learning, comes to Poly-Air programmes and benefit from its academic efforts.
It is imperative to assess and find out the role of Poly-Air programme in educating the masses and at the same time examines the problem encountered in pushing the programme forward.
Finally, the result of the study will help to find other ways of improving the programme and educating the masses.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Does the ESBS/IMT Poly-Air stimulates the interest of the public?
2. Does ESBS time this educational programmes to suit its masses of Enugu metropolis and environs?
3. Is there any appreciable level on the educational system of Nigeria since the introduction of the programme?
4. Does the programme help to develop individual’s intellect on the perception of issue and events in the society.
1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
HI: Radio educational programmes are more affection in
educating the populace, than academic activities in
Ho: Radio educational programme are not effective in
educating the populace.
H2 Poly-Air programmes are well packaged to enhanced
Comprehension of the audience.
Ho: Poly-Air programmes are not well packed to enhance
comprehension of the audience.
H3 The timing of Poly-Air programme on the radio is suitable to the students
Ho: The timing of Poly-Air programme on the radio is not
suitable to the students
H4: ESBS/IMT Poly-Air Programme helps to improve the
educational system in Nigeria.
Ho: ESBS/IMT Poly-Air Programme does not help to
improve the educational system in Nigeria.
In carrying out the study, the following assumptions were made..
i. That even the educated, have gain additional knowledge through the poly air programme on radio
ii. That ESBS/IMT Poly-Air Programmes was effecting in improving educational system for old and young, rich and poor in the state.
iii. Previous study has been carried out on this topic, thus some research works were gathered.
1.9 DEFINITION OS TERMS
The conceptual and operational definition of terms in the study.
1. ESBS/IMT Poly-Air Programme:
Conceptual Definition: programmes that imparts
knowledge on the people through the radio medium.
Operational Definition: Polytechnic on air through Enugu state broadcasting service, which helps non-regular students and workers to be educated.
2. Educational System:
Conceptual Definition: Standardized systematic training and Instructions, usually intellectual and moral training.
3. Operational Definition: Ordered set of ideas and effort that are made to impart knowledge through the academic and non-academic process, usually to develop characters and mental powers.
4. Nigeria: Conceptual Definition: organized political community with its apparatus of government, such a community forming part of the Federal Republic.
Operational Definition: The regional capital of the former Eastern Nigeria and currently Nigeria capital
History of Poly –Ir Programme:
The history of poly air programme in Nigeria started in 1976 between the institute of management and technology (IMT) and Anambra broadcasting corporation (ABS) which is currently known as Nigeria broadcasting services ( ESBS).
The programme however was introduced by professor chijioke of IMT and Mr, Boniface Oforkaja of ABC. The programme got started initially, it started with the teaching for G.C.E Ordinary level and in advanced level subjects, after some year, the programmes expanded to ordinary diploma (OND) and presently to higer national diploma.
First, the programme was called uni-air that is university on air and the first graduates were in 1982. The program started with few courses like accountancy, business administration and management courses on OND before it was later moved to HND with more courses added to the initial ones.
By 1991, it assumed the name poly-air because the programme is been run by polytechnic and mass communication and host of others followed.
All these courses starts from ND1-ND11 and HND111. Also, industrial training (IT) is exampled since most of the poly- air students are workers. It is important to mention that the ESBS/IMT is the first distance learning, in other words the institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu, started the distance learning programme in Nigeria.
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