INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM ON THREE PRODUCTS OF THREE SUPERMARKETS IN OWERRI, IMO STATE.
This research work entails the process involved in inventory control of three supermarkets on three products they sell. The supermarkets include Noble supermarket, Pick ‘n’ smile supermarket and Maris supermarket as a case study. We take their inventory on Candid Red Wine, So Klin Detergent (900g sachet) and Peak Milk Powder. In this research work, data for the observation were collected and analyzed using statistical inventory control models. The inventory models used here were Single item static model (with shortages not allowed) and single item static model (with shortages Allowed). These models are used to dictate shortcomings of the management and control of inventory in the supermarkets on these three goods.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approval Page i
Table of Content vi-vii
1.1 Introduction 1-5
1.2 State of Problem 5-6
1.3 Aims and Objective 6
1.4 Significance of Study 6-7
1.5 Scope of Study 7
1.6 Definition of Terms 8-10
Literature Review 11-16
3.0 Methodology 17
3.1 Data Collection and Methodology 17
3.2 Limitations 17
3.3 Method of Analysis 18
3.4 Data Presentation 18-21
4.1 Data Analysis 22-28
4.2 Interpretation of Result 28-29
5.1 Summary of Result 30-31
5.2 Recommendation 31-32
5.3 References. 33-34
Inventory control involves provision for a flow of goods in and out of a business organization. Inventory control improves the marketing system by checking discrepancies and enabling effective planning. It is also applied to all production activities. Therefore, inventory control is quite useful in a marketing organization. It is very important to marketing process. Considerable attention has been given in recent years to viewing manufacturing facilities as production/inventory system. The framework reorganizes the importance of inventory.
However, it sometimes happens that the organization will find itself with more items in inventory than that maximum that is to say with an excessive inventory. The management of inventory systems typically involves keeping track of thousands of stock keeping units. Since competitive and economic advantages exist from efficient control of inventories, inventory control models have been developed to assist inventory management.
Inventory control system is based on recorded or theoretical (not actual) stock levels to determine a set of parameters that optimize inventory control. These parameters affect both operational and financial decisions. A recorded stock level, is considered accurate when the recorded level agrees with the actual stock level, otherwise there is an error. Inaccurate inventory records may result in out-of-stock condition that lower the service level and lead to loss of goodwill production time or sales.
The main objective of inventory control is to maintain a system which will minimize total cost and determine the optimum quantity of commodity to order for and when best to make the order. The two major systems are the “Re-order level system” and the periodic review system.
Re-order level system: This is the most commonly used to set quantity of stock for each item. This system which is more responsive to fluctuations in demand compared with periodic review system sets the value of three important level of stock as either check or trigger for management. The three important level of stock are as follows:
i. Re-order level = Maximum usage (per period) x maximum lead time.
ii. Minimum Level (Lmin) = Re-order level - normal usage average lead time.
iii. Maximum level (Lmax) = Re-order level + Economic order quantity (EOQ) – (Minimum usage x minimum lead time) where EOQ is associated with cost of ordering inventory.
Periodic Review system: This system sets a review period for each stock item at the end of which the stock level of the item is brought up to a predetermine value. The cost would be saved and profit is increased, when many items are ordered at the same time or in the same sequence. There is little or no chance of stock becoming obsolete since it is reviewed periodically.
Inventory control can be represented graphically relatively to the information obtained during inventory control system.
Inventory graph here, represents the control of the stock from the stores at a steady rate of q1 per T. Here, the graph can be called a periodic review graph.
Then Average inventory level from the graph
T + T + T
= Area A + Area B + Area CINVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM ON THREE PRODUCTS OF THREE SUPERMARKETS IN OWERRI