EMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY
(A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC, ENUGU MAIN BRANCH, ENUGU STATE)
This research work is on “Employees participation in decision making in organizations’ a case study of First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Enugu main branch. Employees irrespective of the enormous role played in implementing organization polices are not often carried along in the decision making process. The research is therefore conducted in order to determine how employees can take active part in decision making. In this research work, primary and secondary data were used, related literature were also extensively reviewed. The population for the study was 442 selected from the staff of the bank. The researchers used Taro Yamani statistical formula to reduce the figure to 210. The research find out that engaged union member in decision making. Also, that employee’s participation in decision making enhances staff morale and improve productivity and performance among others, it recommended that, management should share relevant information to the employees in order to keep them abreast of the organizational activities or decisions, also unity among staff and unions should be promoted in the organization and finally, employees training and development schemes should be encouraged in order to enable the employees to adopt and adapts to current trends in the society and the organization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgment - - - - - - iv
Table of contents - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background and need for the study - - 1
1.2 statement of the problem - - - - 6
1.3 Objectives/purpose of the study - - 9
1.4 Theoretical foundation of the study - - 10
1.5 Research questions - - - - - 13
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - 13
1.7 Scope of the study - - - - - 16
1.8 Limitations of the study - - - 17
1.9 Definition of terms and acronyms - - 19
References - - - - - - - 21
2.1 The concept of employee’s participation - 25
2.2 Factors that influence participation - - 31
2.3 Forms of Employee participation - - 34
2.4 Different needs for participation - - 40
2.5 constraints to employee’s participation - 42
2.6 Argument for participation - - - 44
2.7 Argument Against employee’s participation - 45
2.8 The concept of productivity - - - 47
2.9 The implications of employees participation on productivity - - - - - - - 49
Reference -- - - - - - - 54
3.1 Research Design and methodology - - 58
3.2Sources of Data collection - - - - 59
3.2.1 Primary data - - - - - - 59
3.2.2 Secondary data - - - - - 59
3.3 Location of study - - - - - 60
3.4 Population study - - - - - 60
3.5 Sample size and sampling technology - 63
3.6 Instrumentation - - - - - - 67
3.7 Validity of instrument - - - - 67
3.8 Reliability of instrument - - - - 69
3.9 method of data collection - - - - 70
3.10 Instrument distribution and return rate- 71
References - - - - - - - 73
4.1 Presentations, Analysis and interpretation of Data - - - - - - - - - 74
5.1 Findings, recommendation and conclusion - - - - - - - - - - 84
5.2 Summary of finding - - - - - 86
5.3 Recommendation and conclusion - 89
Bibliography - - - - - 92
Appendix - - - - - - - 101
Questionnaires - - - - - 104
1.1 BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR THE STUDY
Decision making before now used to be exclusive undertaking of management. But with organizational reforms and changes going on in organizations, decision making is becoming more democratic. Command and control according to Henritt (2002) is no longer an adequate model in management, therefore a more open and collaborative frame-work is needed to exploit the talents of all employees. According to (Noah,2008). Employee participation is a special form of delegation in which the subordinate gain greater control, freedom of choice with respect to bridging the communication gap between the management and workers. It refers to the degree of employee involvement in organization’s strategic planning activities. A company can have deep or shallow employee participations in decisions making, (Barringer and Bleudorn, 1999). The employee participation in the planning process leads to potential innovation, which may facilitates opportunity and recognition in the organization. (Zikovic et al, 2009). Managers provide opportunities for participation of subordinates in decision making on the basis of their merits as it has been proved by researchers to have improved organizational performance.
More so, there are too many evidences that shows organizational performance increase with the increase in employees participation, (Arthur 1994: Draft and Lewin, 1993) productivity therefore is the performance measure encompassing both efficiency and effectiveness, high performing and effective organization posses a culture of encouraging employee participation. Also employees are more willing to get involved in decision making process like goal setting, problem solving activities which results in higher performance (Slocum and woodman, 1998). Encouraged more modern participative style of management raise employee productivity and satisfaction even with Low compensation rates (Madison, 2009). Job satisfaction increases productivity through high quality motivation and through increasing working capabilities at the time of implementations, (miller and manage 1986). There are evidences that participative working environment has more substantial effects on workers’ productivity.
Furthermore, every organization seeks to improve and increase its’ performance level by providing opportunities to its worker (Weiss et al, 1999). Organizations must perform at individual level to improve the performance of the whole organization. All subdivisions of the organization must perform well to achieve overall performance level, (Ward,2007). Organizations in all the world have designed different processes to improve performance level from functional to employees and till organizational level to perk up overall organizational performance. Organizations are also required to manage performance of its employees and functions by setting goals and achieving then (Good et al, 2004).
According to Dess and Robinson (2009), organizational performance can be entranced by improving employee participation and management must have certain tools to improve employee participation in that sector. Wheelmen and Hunger (1998), says that level of performance is based on objectives and goals set by an organization. For every company working in the market, the main goal is to earn profit and reduce expenses. According to (Lee et al, 2004), Level of progress and participation is different in every organization, many organizations delegate authority and power to their employees and also due to that, authority and organizational performance also increase.
To Ho, et al, (2006), organizations require different analysis to measure their profitability and this shows that organizations’ profitability can be increased when performance level of an enterprise also increases. With these illustrations in mind, it is therefore in the backdrop or premises that the researchers set out to study and examine the employee’s participation in decision making and organization’s productivity using First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Enugu main branch as a case of study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is a modem trend in management that employees participate in decision making. This decision making style came about because the task, the environment and the people have changed, Enisplus, 2016). They contend that competitive advantage is the result of employee participation in decision making.
However, there are some impediments to actualizing a robust employee decision making participation, Enusplus (2016) observe that qualified, reasonable, honest, and company oriented individuals are not available especially at lower organizational level. When they are available, Levine and Tyson as quoted in Ojokuku & Sajujigbe (2014) believe that workers advise and suggestions no matter how good, the management retains the right to make final decisions. This is because it is feared in the words of Ogbonna (2012) that workers are not competent and as a result will not contribute meaningfully in decisions of the organization.
Another major problem stems from the fact that some organizations are deceitful, in that sense, they never intended to use the opinions of their employees. In that light, Tannaem Baum and Schimidt (1980) submitted that problems may occur when a manager uses a democratic façade to conceal the fact that he has already made a decision which he hopes the group will accept as its own. In this perspective, the desire for employee participation by the management is not real or genuine. This is further buttressed by Arnstein in wikipedia (2016) that there is a critical difference between going through the empty ritual of participation and having the real power needed to affect the outcome of the process. This difference is brilliantly capsulated in a poster which highlights the fundamental point that participation without re-distribution of power is an empty and frustrating process for the powerless. It allows the power holders to claim that all sides were considered, but makes it possible for only some of those sides to benefit.
Other problems also emerge. There are social pressures to confirm to groups domination even when one has different idea. Again with ideas coming from many people, time can be an issue (Wikipedia, 2016). According to Debruin et al (2007), possible negative outcomes of participatory decision making (PDM) are high costs, inefficiency, indecisiveness and incompetence.
In the light of the above analysis, this study is set to determine the extent of staff participation on decision making in First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Enugu and its implications on productivity.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to examine the implications of employee participation in decision making and organizational productivity with the followings as the specific objectives.
(a) To find out how employees can participate in decision making in First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Enugu main branch.
(b) To evaluate the implications of employees participation in decision making on workers’ productivity/performance in First Bank of Nigeria plc, Enugu main branch.
(c) To ascertain the challenges encountered by employees in the course of participating in decision making in First Bank Plc, Enugu main branch.
(d) To make recommendations on how these challenges can be eliminated or solved to enhance productivity.
1.4 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY
This study will be using empowerment theory of leadership as a theoretical foundation or framework. The empowerment theory was propounded by Kanter (1993). Kanter sees the empowerment theory of leadership as closely aligned with this thrust to gain organizational effectiveness through wise utilization of human resources, Kanter (1993) was of the view that empowered employees are generally more satisfied with their work and would perform very high in the organization thereby promoting productivity of the organization.
The theory of leadership is used to better illustrate the variables and give a more compelling view of the variables. The concept of leadership has been widely researched due to its relevance to organizational survival which is why Nirenberg (2010) viewed leadership as a special tool required for the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. This definition emphasized leadership to encompass the actions and attitude of the leader(s) with respect to his/her subordinates. Leadership is inspiration that drives positive outcome. The whole essence of leadership can be deduced to consist given others the opportunity to lead and grow and ensuring that right attitude and building commitment to organizational goals and objectives. MoEMPLOYEES PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AND ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY