IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS AMONG TEENAGERS
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)
This study is aimed to ascertain the impact of mass media campaign aimed at curbing the spread of the diseases Aids among teenager in Nkanu Local Government Area, Agbani, Enugu State. The objective f the study is also to find out through sample survey whether the teenager are really getting sufficient information about aids so as to enable them inform their opinion about the diseases. The study gives account of the sex, marital status, occupational variables that were of relevance to the study. The researcher use questionnaire method in execution of the study. This no doubt helps on collecting information as to the way people generally perceived the disease AIDS its wave to Nigeria since the mid 1980s.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Background of study
1.2 Statement of the research problems
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 The scope (delimitation) of the study
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
1.9 Theoretical framework
2.1 Source of literature
2.2 The review
2.3 Aids: social implications of the campaign against AIDS
2.4 Factor intercepting the campaign relevant
2.5 Media impact on audience
2.6 The media attitude change
2.7 Campaign against aids; strategies and dimension
2.8 Summary of literature review
3.0 Research method
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Measuring instrument
3.4 The population of study
3.5 Sample and sampling technique
3.6 Data collections
3.7 Data analysis
3.8 Validity of the instrument
3.9 Reliability of instrument
4.1 Data analysis and result
4.2 Data analysis
Summary and Recommendation
5.4 Limitation of study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The media has been established can provide for audience member a” definition of the situation” on a variety of issues. By emphasizing certain topics the mass media create some distorted impressions with their “definition” portraying a reflection of the red society. For example if sexual promiscuity regularly portrayed as widely practiced, an individual would define his own behaviour in such a situation as norms internalized. This would guide his conducts.
Simply by their presence, the mass media have altered the nature of societal communication norm. large audience have been created that expect the media to provide commentaryy and other message people depend on the media for various forms of gratification based upon content. If denied such communication, they feel deprived.
(Benelson, 1950, 889-898) Even in relatively underdeveloped societies population quickly develop .media related habit once mass communication become available to them in form they understand.
People become aware of events outside their immediate experience.
People according to Walter Lippman (1922) act upon basis of ”the pismires in our head rather than the reality of the world outside.
We have learned through research that he images and worlds the media carry. television, radio and newspapers” determines within the limitation posed by interviewing factors, open of people and their action.
It is believed that in the imperfect world, there is no single antidote to human ills but publicity is often a vital step to findings the cure for many social ills. In this line therefore, it is believed that extensive impact of media and ture information on the AIDS campaign will read and perhaps touch on the sexual habit of people. When a disease is sexually transmitted, the publicity and effort to eradicate.
It is fortified, AIDS is the worst disease to hit human race since the black league of the 114th century already caught this awful disease and do not know it, and might not know it for years. (Van impe: 1989: pg 1)
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The role of mass media in any society cannot be over emphasized. It goes beyond the ordinary art and science of news gathering and dissemination to shaping opinion and attitudes of people via proper and accurate analysis and interpretation of news evens. Through their information, education, entertaining and socializing function of mass media impact peoples attitude and behaviour (Grahamen Mython 183:32).
The mass media set agenda for public discussion by chronicling news events with the society. The mass media, no doubt, has changed or altered our culture. News products, advertised to millions via television, magazines, radio and newspaper can achieve wide spread addition almost overnight.
The rapid spread of other culture forms, such as speech mannerism, fades of all kinds, and other invocative patterns, can be trigged by the media.
Different mass media are effective at different pints in different ways. The mass media only create awareness while the face to face communication (Eahle et at 19709:29)
This implies that the mass media short coming which do not produce their effectiveness n matter how minimal at bringing a about axial change. Lazars field and Katz radio television and print topopinion leaders and form them to the less active section of the population it therefore means that these who can not be reached by the three media could benefit from interpersonal flow of information or the innovation. -Field and Katz 1955)
Macgurire (1969) Observed that the measured impact of the mass media as regard persuasiveness seems quite slight. A tremendous among the applied research has carried out to test the effectiveness of the news media massage. The out come which he said been quite embarrassing for proponents of mass media.
In view of this perceived short coming. It therefore becomes very necessary to take a hard work at the role of the mass media campaign against aids vis –a-vis their impact among the teenagers in Enugu state.
However, research is a systematic search of knowledge the media of which a primarily to find solution to existing problems. Proper identification of a problem determines the direction of the study. Therefore, the problems this research work aims at solving are:
a. To determine the major sources of information regarding to AIDS.
b. the impact o exposure to AIDS campaign among teenagers of Agbani in Nkanu Local government area, in Enugu state
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
EFFECT OF THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS
1. The primary aim of this study is to examine the extent of which mass media campaign against AIDS has affected and influence attitude and behavioural change towards sex.
2. Influence of Mass Media Message
Influence here will therefore be regarded as the ability of the campaign against AIDS to induce the teenagers to change their behaviours to sexual promiscuity and help them also know more about AIDS and suggestion preventive measure.
3. Interest of the Audience
The study is interested in the audience ie the teenagers. Do their sex and age affect the way they perceived the message? Are they really getting the information (Exposure) or has their level of education got something to do with their behaviour and attitudes to sexual matters.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Do people get most information about AIDS through the mass media?
2. Does campaign against AIDS related to the use of condom during sexual intercourse amongst teenagers reduced separation of the disease?
3. Does exposure against AIDS campaign discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity
4. Do teenagers who are single exposed themselves to campaign against AIDS more then married ones?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hi: Most respondents will get information about AIDS from the mass media more than other source.
Ho: Most respondents will not get information about AIDS from the mass media more than other source.
H2: Teenagers who are exposed to the campaign against AIDS are likely use condom or abstain from sex than those who are not.
Ho: Teenagers who are exposed to the campaign against AIDS are not likely use condom and abstain from sex than those who are not.
H3: Exposure against AIDS campaign, discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity.
Ho: Exposure to campaign against AIDS does not discourage teenagers from sexual promiscuity.
H4: Teenagers who are single expose themselves to the campaign against AIDS more than teenagers who are married.
Ho: Teenagers who are single will not expose themselves to the campaign against AIDS more than teenagers who are married.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
As a result of poor funding, time constraints and convenience, the study shall be limited to teenagers in Enugu state university and is environs.
The researcher hope that through the use of questionnaire and scientific sampling techniques, the results of the study will be generalized to the larger population.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is envisaged that the out coming of the study will help to alert the teenagers population on the dangers inherent in AIDS and equally contribute to existing literature in the area of mass media impact.
Also the study will help health ministry to determine which of the mass media to employ in disseminating AIDS information.
Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equip mass media practitioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with at concrete and more futuristic approach to coverage all manners of campaign without much do in Nigeria.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The operational and Conceptual definition of terms in the study:
In the context, refer to various communication channels (specifically a radio, television and newspaper) through which information regarding campaign against AIDS communicated to teenagers in Agbani , Nkanu local government area of Enugu state.
The four letter AIDS stands for are: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome . the word immune refers to the defense system of the body which helps the body to fight all kinds of infections . This system does not work well in campaign against AIDS.
Those attempt through the radio television and newspapers aimed at curbing further spread impact.
The range of data report of new death by the media.
Sexual activities amongst teenagers, men and women or man and man (homosexual ) in Enugu state.
Young men and women in Agbani, Enugu state. Both indigene and non - indigene who are between the age of 15 - 40 year.
1. Mass Media: it is the media where masses, audience can get information that contains emphasis on AIDS programme.
2. Media Impact: media impact on AIDS has to do with public opinion, policy, peoples comprehensiveness and proper application and implementation of journalism by journalists.
3. AIDS: As a deadly infection disease
4. Campaign against AIDS: series of planned n information to publicize AIDS and its preventive measures.
The activities surrounding, centering on sexual perversion and leading to coitus .
Is collectively of young men and women
1.9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
For suitable theoretical framework for the study, the researcher applied the two way symmetrical method” thus was propounded in 1984 by cunning and Hurt in their book.
Mass media campaign against HIV/AIDS.
According to Nwosu (1996) theory stress on using mass media to disseminate the menace of AIDS on teenagers through sexual relationship and how it can be avoided either in the overall mass media programmes or specific mass media project through mutually two way communication with inbuilt feedback between an organization (mass media) and its public (teenagers).
No mass media operates in isolation and by so doing is affected by what communication, mass media can properly manage their relationships with their varies public.
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