BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Education is a process through which
individual acquires skills, competencies, and attitude. It is the right of
every child to be educated, be it traditional or western. Thus, education is
been regarded as culture to man, people and the nation of the world at large.
This explains why man has to educate himself and his offspring in the society.
Poverty is one of the factors militating against man from carrying out his
educational activities perfectly. Because of the various perception and
complexities of the term poverty, a universally agreed definition cannot be
arrived at. But then poverty according to the oxford advanced learners
dictionary (2000) defined poverty as the state of being poor. Oguw Mike (2005) sees poverty as a way of
life characterized by low calorie intake, inaccessibility of adequate health
facilities low quality education system, low life expectancy, unemployment and
under-employment. Leroy and Symes (2001) consider poverty as a major anti-risk
factors relating the concept poverty to Nigeria, it will therefore be
considered in a broader way which implies that it has be viewed in various
perspectives which include one national state and home background. At the
national level, a nation can be considered poor when her economic standard is
very low and this automatically makes the nation underdeveloped. The economy of
a country that does not reached certain stage of development in terms of infrastructure
and other development indices. As regard poverty in the family level, we are
referring to the home background. Even
before the indigenous education or western type of education, the home has
always been the agency through which man learns various aspect of life to
enable him live a meaningful life in his environment. The home which is also
known as traditional way of educating the young ones is still regarded as the
first school of a child before he enters the larger society.
The role of the home cannot be over
emphasized because the general assumptions that states of poverty in the family
or home goes to a long way to determine the extent of youth or students
educational development. Education is seen by many as the route to alleviate
poverty. There is no doubt that meaningful; education is the most potent
instrument for alleviating and eventually abolishing poverty. In considering
the effect of poverty on academic performance of students to be precise, the
home background is the most important phenomenon that needs to be seriously
considered in order to enhance the effective study of the relationship between
poverty and students academic performance. In view of this, some factors that
needed to be considered in the home or family background are parents academic
qualification, socio-economic class and facilities available in home or home
environment as well as parent status.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Evidence shows that in Nigeria, the
number of those in poverty has continued to increase every year. By 1999, when
the government came into power, it was estimated that more than 70% of Nigeria
lived in poverty. In recent years, it has been a controversy through in the
mind of people that if the poor status of any society or nation, even family
can really have an impact on the students educational performance. In view of
this, the study intends to investigate the positive and negative impact of
poverty on the studentís education in Nigeria. This is because the diversity of
the world poverty by different scholars who have used it in their course of
study and how it has affected the learning and performance of the students in
their educational development. Goldstem (1976) admitted this concept when he
said that the fact that much of youth educational development takes places in a
circle or home, the child begins to attend school in psychological tourism, an
attempt would be made to determine the influence of parentís socio-economic
performance and the poverty impact on students education. There is a group which
contents the poor have right to be assisted on the bases of group solidarity.
Oijkstra (1984) we know that in Africa, the system of the extended family
addresses the issues of poverty in the community.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to
investigate the effect of poverty on the studentís academic performance in
Nigeria emphasizing on some selected secondary schools in Egor Local Government
Area of Edo State. The study is to find out whether students of nation can
really be affected with any economic standard of the nation. The study also
tries to find out the extend of which any community standard of living can
affect the students education in that community. Some teachers are surprise
when it comes to evaluate performance of some students such teachers might find
a particular students in class performing extremely poor despite all kinds of
skills employed in carrying out an effective teaching and learning process
which extremely well.
This study will also provide possible
suggestion, in enhancing or improving the studentís academic performance by
bringing out strategies to alleviate poverty. For instance by introducing the
Britain welfare legislative system by providing accommodation, transportation,
feeding, sickness benefiting, clothing etc those families living below the
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important when looked at
from the concept of poverty and the three various factors, the national level,
the community level and the home level or family background which influence
studentís educational needs. It is hoped that the study definitely identified
some of the essential factors existing in the various level as they influence
students in their performance. The study will give solution on how to improve
studentsí academic performance. The level of literacy can also influence the
level of performance in economic enterprise. This is why Africa tradition
insists on lifelong education as a process of acquiring various types of
literacy, cultural, political, religious etc for meaningful and effective
The study will also focus on the need for
government to incorporate parents in planning, for student. This is because the
parents know best the environment under which students at home will learn and
other variable which affect their performance. The study also enables us to
know that poverty has become serious problem in Nigeria. Despite her oil
wealth, Nigeria becomes one of the poorest nation in the world. This life span
as short and there are social, political and economic difficulties. Begging has
become a vocation to many who now live on the street. The crime rate is
alarming, as violence, fraud and armed robbery increase. One way of solving the
problem of poverty is to introduce measures ameliorate an equitable
distribution of resource.
Henner Hilder Brand (1994) believes that
the process of alleviating might be beyond the acquisition of literacy and the
introduction of income general efforts. He seems to be suggesting that the cure
of poverty would be the conclusion of people in decision and policies. The
living conditions of the poor also signify lacks of participatory opportunities
in the economics, cultural, political and social areas. The living conditions
of the fight against poverty should consequently focus on eliminating the
deficits mentioned in order to be effective in the long-run.
For the proper examination of this study,
the following have been formulated to serve as a guide in the conduct of the investigation.
1. What is the impact of environmental
factors on the academic performance of students?
2. To what extent does the economic status
of any nation affects its students academic performance?
3. Does the economic status of the parent
have an impact on the academic performance?
4. Does the educational background of your
parent have any impact on your academic performance?
5. Does lack of equipment like textbooks
affect the academic performance?
SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to some selected
secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State.